An Assessment of Water Supply Governance in Armed Conflict Areas of Rakhine State, Myanmar
2. Materials and Methods
2.1. Study Area
2.1.1. Urban Public Water Supply Distribution System
2.1.2. Urban Public Water Supply Governance Structure
2.1.3. Theoretical Background
2.2. Research Methods
2.2.1. Data Collection
2.2.2. Data Analysis
3.1. Socio-Demographic Characteristics of Multi-Stakeholders in the Participatory Workshops
3.2. Town Water Supply Stakeholders and Power Dynamics
Public Water Supply Stakeholders and Their Salience
- In your Township Public Water Supply Service, which stakeholder groups having urgent claims get the highest priority and attention?
- In your Township Public Water Supply Service, which stakeholder groups having legitimate claims get the highest priority?
- In your Township Public Water Supply Service, which stakeholder groups having urgent and legitimate claims get the highest priority?
3.3. Stakeholders’ Perception of Water Supply Situation Causes and Consequences of Policy Changes
3.3.1. Stakeholders’ Perception of Water Supply Resources in Rakhine State
3.3.2. Stakeholders’ Perception of Causes and Consequences of Institutional Policy Changes during the Armed Conflict
3.4. Town Water Supply Governance in the Armed Conflicting Area from the Multi-Stakeholders’ Perspective
4.1. Lack of Socio-Technical and Financial Capacity in Public Water Supply Governance
4.2. State-Led Water Management Versus the Role of Multi-Stakeholders in Public Water Supply Governance
Informed Consent Statement
Data Availability Statement
Conflicts of Interest
Appendix A. Research Indicators, Variables, and Measurement Scale Points
|Indicators||Variables||Scale of Measurement|
|1. Inter–Intra Interaction||1.1 Set up the freshwater supply-related policies and priorities|
1.2 Well informed to all actors about freshwater-related acts, regulations and laws
1.3 Regular relationship between actors and staff from the water supply system
1.4 Regular relationship between actors and water supply government agencies
1.5 Regular relationship between actors and local communities
|1 (Definitely Not)|
|2. Access to Water Supply Services||2.1 Water supply department facilitated in freshwater accessibility|
2.2 Local government helped to access freshwater resource
2.3 Informal institutions facilitated in freshwater use
|1 (Definitely Not)|
|3. Quality of Water Supply Service||3.1 Staff and different stakeholders have regular monthly interactions|
3.2 Permanent staff are working for town water supply related departments
3.3 Responsible staff are working all the weekdays
3.4 Staff are well equipped with suitable transportation facilities
3.5 Town water supply committee and other actors meet frequently
|1 (Strongly Disagree)|
5 (Strongly Agree)
|4. Satisfaction||4.1 Satisfaction on current status and functions of the freshwater supply management system||1 (Very Dissatisfied)|
5 (Very Satisfied)
|5. Access to Information||5.1 Difficulty or easiness to access information on the freshwater supply management system||1 (Very Hard to Access)|
5 (Very Easy to Access)
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|Number of Respondents (n)||160||40||40||40||40|
|Gender (%)||Male||80.0%||92.5%||72.5%||75.0%||X2 = 5.9375||3||0.115|
|Age (%)||20–30||5.0%||20.0%||20.0%||22.5%||X2 = 14.914||9||0.093|
|Education (%)||Undergrad||55.0%||40.0%||62.5%||70.0%||X2 = 16.971||6||0.009 *|
|Occupation (%)||Business||37.5%||35.0%||35.0%||32.5%||X2 = 1.3932||6||0.966|
|Type of Stakeholders||Possessed Attributes||Saliency||Stakeholder Groups|
|Dormant||Power||Low||Religious Organizations *|
|Discretionary||Legitimacy||Low||Department of Rural Development, Private Sector|
|Dominant||Power, Legitimacy||Moderate||Military Institutions **|
|Dangerous||Power, Urgency||Moderate||Ethnic Armed Organizations ***|
|Dependent||Legitimacy, Urgency||Moderate||Civil Society Organizations|
|Definitive||Power, Legitimacy, Urgency||High||TMAC/Town Elders, Department of Municipal/Development Affairs, Local Authorities, Political Parties|
|Type of Information||Stakeholders’ Views|
|Water current issues||Infrastructure problems:|
|Suggestions for addressing water current issues||Infrastructure problems:|
|Proposal for improved freshwater supply governance|
|Institutional Policies during Armed Conflict||Causes of Institutional Policy Changes||Consequences of Institutional Policy Changes|
|Water pricing and tax collection|
|Indicators||Assessed Variables||TMAC/Town Elders, DDA/DMA, DRD, and Local Authorities||Water Users and Private Business Sector||CSOs||Political Parties|
|Inter–Intra Interaction||Actors’ Perception on Inter–Intra Interaction||Positive||Neutral||Neutral||Neutral|
|Access to town water supply services||Satisfaction Level of Access to Town Water Supply Services||Positive||Positive||Positive||Positive|
|Quality of water supply service||Opinion on the Quality of Water Supply Service||Positive||Positive||Positive||Positive|
|Satisfaction||Level of Satisfaction on Freshwater Supply Management System||Positive||Neutral||Positive||Positive|
|Access to information||Level of Access to Information on Freshwater Supply System||Positive||Neutral||Neutral||Neutral|
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Khaing, T.; Nguyen, T.P.L. An Assessment of Water Supply Governance in Armed Conflict Areas of Rakhine State, Myanmar. Water 2022, 14, 2930. https://doi.org/10.3390/w14182930
Khaing T, Nguyen TPL. An Assessment of Water Supply Governance in Armed Conflict Areas of Rakhine State, Myanmar. Water. 2022; 14(18):2930. https://doi.org/10.3390/w14182930Chicago/Turabian Style
Khaing, Thin, and Thi Phuoc Lai Nguyen. 2022. "An Assessment of Water Supply Governance in Armed Conflict Areas of Rakhine State, Myanmar" Water 14, no. 18: 2930. https://doi.org/10.3390/w14182930