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Article

Achieving Sustainable Development Goal 6 Electrochemical-Based Solution for Treating Groundwater Polluted by Fuel Station

1
Institute of Chemistry, Federal University of Rio Grande do Norte, Lagoa Nova, Natal 59078-970, RN, Brazil
2
Federal Institute of Education, Science, and Technology of Rio Grande do Norte/Nova Cruz, Av. José Rodrigues de Aquino Filho, Nova Cruz 59215-000, RN, Brazil
3
National Institute for Alternative Technologies of Detection, Toxicological Evaluation and Removal of Micropollutants and Radioactives (INCT-DATREM), Institute of Chemistry, Universidad Estatal Paulista Júlio de Mesquita Filho, Araraquara 14800-900, SP, Brazil
4
Department Chemie, Johannes Gutenberg-Universität Mainz Duesbergweg 10-14, 55128 Mainz, Germany
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: Dionysios (Dion) Demetriou Dionysiou, Yujue Wang and Huijiao Wang
Water 2022, 14(18), 2911; https://doi.org/10.3390/w14182911
Received: 6 August 2022 / Revised: 9 September 2022 / Accepted: 13 September 2022 / Published: 17 September 2022
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advanced Oxidation Processes for Emerging Contaminant Removal)
Oil leakage occurs at fuel service stations due to improper storage, which pollutes soil and, subsequently, can reach the groundwater. Many compounds of petroleum-derived fuels pose hazards to aquatic systems, and so must be treated to guarantee clean and safe consumption, which is a right proposed by the United Nations in their Sustainable Development Goal 6 (SDG 6: Clean Water and Sanitation). In this study, contaminated groundwater with emerging pollutants by petroleum-derived fuel was electrochemically treated in constantly mixed 0.5 L samples using three different anodes: Ni/BDD, Ti/Pt, Ti/RuO2. Parameters were investigated according to chemical oxygen demand (COD), energy consumption analysis, by applying different electrodes, current densities (j), time, and the use of Na2SO4 as an electrolyte. Despite a similar COD decrease, better degradation was achieved after 240 min of electrochemical treatment at Ti/RuO2 system (almost 70%) by applying 30 mA cm−2, even without electrolyte. Furthermore, energy consumption was lower with the RuO2 anode, and greater when 0.5 M of Na2SO4 was added; while the order, when compared with the other electrocatalytic materials, was Ti/RuO2 > Ti/Pt > Ni/BDD. Thereafter, aiming to verify the viability of treatment at a large scale, a pilot flow plant with a capacity of 5 L was used, with a double-sided Ti/RuO2 as the anode, and two stainless steel cathodes. The optimal conditions for the effective treatment of the polluted water were a j of 30 mA cm−2, and 0.5 M of Na2SO4, resulting in 68% degradation after 300 min, with almost complete removal of BTEX compounds (benzene, toluene, ethyl-benzene, and xylene, which are found in emerging pollutants) from the water and other toxic compounds. These significant results proved that the technology used here could be an effective SDG 6 electrochemical-based solution for the treatment of groundwater, seeking to improve the quality of water, removing contaminants, and focusing on Brazilian environmental legislations and, consequently, converting pollutants into effluent that can be returned to the water cycle. View Full-Text
Keywords: anodic oxidation; BTEX; groundwater pollution; electrochemical oxidation; sustainable development goals anodic oxidation; BTEX; groundwater pollution; electrochemical oxidation; sustainable development goals
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MDPI and ACS Style

da Silva, J.C.O.; Solano, A.M.S.; Barbosa Segundo, I.D.; dos Santos, E.V.; Martínez-Huitle, C.A.; da Silva, D.R. Achieving Sustainable Development Goal 6 Electrochemical-Based Solution for Treating Groundwater Polluted by Fuel Station. Water 2022, 14, 2911. https://doi.org/10.3390/w14182911

AMA Style

da Silva JCO, Solano AMS, Barbosa Segundo ID, dos Santos EV, Martínez-Huitle CA, da Silva DR. Achieving Sustainable Development Goal 6 Electrochemical-Based Solution for Treating Groundwater Polluted by Fuel Station. Water. 2022; 14(18):2911. https://doi.org/10.3390/w14182911

Chicago/Turabian Style

da Silva, Júlio César Oliveira, Aline Maria Sales Solano, Inalmar D. Barbosa Segundo, Elisama Vieira dos Santos, Carlos A. Martínez-Huitle, and Djalma Ribeiro da Silva. 2022. "Achieving Sustainable Development Goal 6 Electrochemical-Based Solution for Treating Groundwater Polluted by Fuel Station" Water 14, no. 18: 2911. https://doi.org/10.3390/w14182911

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