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Article

Physical, Chemical, and Mineralogical Controls on Retardation of Anatoxin-a Migration by Sorption to Natural Soils with Implications for Groundwater Protection

1
Department of Geology & Geological Engineering, University of Mississippi, 120A Carrier Hall, P.O. Box 1848, University, MS 38677-1848, USA
2
Nyrstar East Tennessee Mines, New Market, TN 37820, USA
3
National Sedimentation Laboratory, Agricultural Research Service, U.S. Department of Agriculture, Oxford, MS 38655, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: Jiangshan Li, Xiao Yang and Fei Wang
Water 2022, 14(18), 2869; https://doi.org/10.3390/w14182869
Received: 31 July 2022 / Revised: 8 September 2022 / Accepted: 9 September 2022 / Published: 14 September 2022
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Innovative Technologies for Soil and Water Remediation)
Increasing prevalence of cyanotoxins in surface water bodies worldwide threatens groundwater quality when contaminated water recharges an aquifer through natural or artificial means. The subsurface fate of anatoxin-a (ATX) is not well studied. Laboratory batch experiments were performed to expand the current knowledge of ATX sorption affinities to geologic media, with a focus on natural soil (Vertisol, Ultisol, Alfisol, and Inceptisol) and physical, chemical, and mineralogical characteristics. For a range of aqueous ATX concentrations (0.3–14 μg/L), linear, Freundlich, and Langmuir isotherms fit observed data well (r2 = 0.92–1.00, RMSE = 0.4–6.3 μg/kg). Distribution coefficient (Kd) and retardation factor (Rf) values were computed for the linear isotherm, giving Kd of 22.3–77.1 L/kg and Rf of 62–256. Average percent removals were 85.0–92.2%. The strongest predictors of Kd were kaolinite and smectite group mineral abundances and for Rf were smectite group and silt and clay abundances. Results indicate that loamy, silty, or clayey soils—particularly Vertisols—tend to substantially slow migration of ATX through natural soil systems. Where implemented as a functionalized amendment in an engineered pollution control media, such soils may enhance natural ATX attenuation processes, thereby supporting the protection of in situ and extracted groundwater during irrigation, natural and managed aquifer recharge, or riverbank filtration. View Full-Text
Keywords: anatoxin-a; cyanotoxin; emerging contaminants; sorption; soil; clay mineralogy; pollution control anatoxin-a; cyanotoxin; emerging contaminants; sorption; soil; clay mineralogy; pollution control
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MDPI and ACS Style

Hobart, J.L.; O’Reilly, A.M.; Gifford, J.N. Physical, Chemical, and Mineralogical Controls on Retardation of Anatoxin-a Migration by Sorption to Natural Soils with Implications for Groundwater Protection. Water 2022, 14, 2869. https://doi.org/10.3390/w14182869

AMA Style

Hobart JL, O’Reilly AM, Gifford JN. Physical, Chemical, and Mineralogical Controls on Retardation of Anatoxin-a Migration by Sorption to Natural Soils with Implications for Groundwater Protection. Water. 2022; 14(18):2869. https://doi.org/10.3390/w14182869

Chicago/Turabian Style

Hobart, Justin L., Andrew M. O’Reilly, and Jennifer N. Gifford. 2022. "Physical, Chemical, and Mineralogical Controls on Retardation of Anatoxin-a Migration by Sorption to Natural Soils with Implications for Groundwater Protection" Water 14, no. 18: 2869. https://doi.org/10.3390/w14182869

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