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Article

The Role of Turbulent Coherent Structures on Microalgal Mixing for Nutrient Removal in Jet and Paddlewheel Raceway Ponds

1
Department of Civil Engineering, Ahsanullah University of Science and Technology, Dhaka 1208, Bangladesh
2
School of Civil Environmental and Mining Engineering and UWA Oceans Institute, University of Western Australia, 35 Stirling Highway, Crawley, WA 6009, Australia
3
Environmental and Conservation Sciences, College of Science, Health, Engineering & Education, Murdoch University, Murdoch, WA 6150, Australia
4
Centre for Sustainable Aquatic Ecosystems, Murdoch University, Murdoch, WA 6150, Australia
5
Centre for Water, Energy and Waste, Harry Butler Institute, Murdoch University, Murdoch, WA 6150, Australia
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: Hongyu Ren and Fanying Kong
Water 2022, 14(18), 2824; https://doi.org/10.3390/w14182824
Received: 30 July 2022 / Revised: 3 September 2022 / Accepted: 5 September 2022 / Published: 10 September 2022
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Applications of Algae for Wastewater Treatment)
Outdoor studies were conducted on microalgae cultures in two raceway ponds (kept in constant motion with either jet or paddlewheel) with a flatbed to treat anaerobic digestion piggery effluent and to observe the characteristics of turbulence on microalgal mixing and growth. Acoustic Doppler Velocimeters (ADV) were deployed to record the instantaneous velocity components and acoustic backscatter as a substitution of microalgae concentration. The present research on microalgal mixing considers the effect of event-based turbulent features such as the widely known ‘turbulent bursting’ phenomenon. This is an important aspect, as turbulent coherent structures can result in microalgal mixing, which can lead to significant changes in microalgal growth. The experimental results presented in this paper of two contrasting environments of jet- and paddlewheel-driven ponds suggested that: (1) turbulent bursting events significantly contributed to microalgal mixing when paddlewheels and jets were used; (2) among four type of turbulent bursting events, ejections and sweeps contributed more to the total microalgal mixing; and, (3) a correlation was revealed using wavelet transform between the momentum and microalgal mixing flux when either jet or paddlewheel were used. Such similarities in jet and paddlewheel raceway ponds highlight the need to introduce turbulent coherent structures as an essential parameter for microalgal mixing studies. View Full-Text
Keywords: anaerobic digestate of piggery effluent (ADPE); raceway ponds; flow rate; turbulent bursting; acoustic doppler velocimeter (ADV); microalgae mixing anaerobic digestate of piggery effluent (ADPE); raceway ponds; flow rate; turbulent bursting; acoustic doppler velocimeter (ADV); microalgae mixing
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MDPI and ACS Style

Kayed, F.; Salim, S.; Verduin, J.J.; Moheimani, N.R. The Role of Turbulent Coherent Structures on Microalgal Mixing for Nutrient Removal in Jet and Paddlewheel Raceway Ponds. Water 2022, 14, 2824. https://doi.org/10.3390/w14182824

AMA Style

Kayed F, Salim S, Verduin JJ, Moheimani NR. The Role of Turbulent Coherent Structures on Microalgal Mixing for Nutrient Removal in Jet and Paddlewheel Raceway Ponds. Water. 2022; 14(18):2824. https://doi.org/10.3390/w14182824

Chicago/Turabian Style

Kayed, Farhana, Sarik Salim, Jennifer J. Verduin, and Navid R. Moheimani. 2022. "The Role of Turbulent Coherent Structures on Microalgal Mixing for Nutrient Removal in Jet and Paddlewheel Raceway Ponds" Water 14, no. 18: 2824. https://doi.org/10.3390/w14182824

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