Soil salinization is a problem that arouses the world’s attention. Soil salinity is an important limitation for agriculture production in coastal area. Phosphorus is a very important nutrient element in the process of plant growth, and its effectiveness affects plant growth to a great extent. In this study, soil available phosphorus and its component in Hedley phosphorus classification were found to be affected by soil salinity in coastal areas of Jiangsu Province. Several key environmental factors changed under the saline environment of the coastal areas, such as soil salinity, soil pH, and soil alkaline phosphatase activity. These environmental factors were significantly correlated with soil available phosphorus. Results showed that there were significant correlations between soil salinity and other environmental factors, and soil salinity and alkaline phosphatase activity were the main influencing factors of soil available phosphorus in this study. Significant positive correlation was found between alkaline phosphatase activity and soil salt content, and soil salinity was considered as the most important impact factor for soil available phosphorus as it affected the surrounding environment, and the soil alkaline phosphatase could be considered as the direct influencing factor for soil available phosphorus. Analysis between the soil alkaline phosphatase activity and phosphorus component showed that soil alkaline phosphatase activity could increase the proportion of active inorganic phosphorus and medium active inorganic phosphorus in soil phosphorus pool, which explained the effect of soil alkaline phosphatase activity on soil available phosphorus.
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