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Article

An Indirect Inversion Scheme for Retrieving Toxic Metal Concentrations Using Ground-Based Spectral Data in a Reclamation Coal Mine, China

by 1,†, 1,*,†, 2, 1, 1, 1, 3,4,* and 1
1
College of Geomatics, Xi’an University of Science and Technology, Xi’an 710054, China
2
China Power Construction Group Northwest Survey, Design and Research Institute Co., Ltd., Xi’an 710065, China
3
School of Land Engineering, Chang’an University, Xi’an 710054, China
4
Shaanxi Key Laboratory of Land Consolidation, Xi’an 710054, China
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
These authors contributed equally to this work.
Academic Editor: Domenico Cicchella
Water 2022, 14(18), 2784; https://doi.org/10.3390/w14182784
Received: 10 August 2022 / Revised: 1 September 2022 / Accepted: 5 September 2022 / Published: 7 September 2022
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Research Progress on Watershed Ecohydrological Processes)
A reclamation coal mine in Baishui County of Shaanxi Province, China, was selected as the study area to develop a fast survey method for estimating soil heavy metal concentrations using spectral data. A portable object spectrometer manufactured by Analytical Spectral Devices (ASD) was used to measure soil spectral reflectance, and an X-ray fluorescence device was utilized to obtain the content of heavy metals. The Savitzky-Golay filter, first derivative reflectance (FDR), second derivative reflectance (SDR), continuum removal (CR), and continuous wavelet transform (CWT) were used to transform the original reflectance (OR) spectra for enhancing the spectral characteristics, respectively. Furthermore, correlation analysis was introduced to determine the characteristic bands and the correlations of heavy metals. Partial least squares regression (PLSR), extremely learning machine (ELM), random forest (RF), and support vector machine (SVM) were implemented for quantitatively determining relations between heavy metal contents and spectral reflectance. The outcomes demonstrated that the spectral transformation methods could effectively capture the characteristic bands and increase the relations between heavy metal contents and spectral reflectance. The relation between Fe and Ni was close with a relatively high correlation coefficient (r = 0.741). RF combined with CWT at the decomposition scales of 9 demonstrated the best performance with the highest Rv2 (0.71) and the lowest RMSEv (1019.1 mg/kg) for inferring Fe content. Ni content was inferred based on the close relationship between Fe and Ni. The result of RF was better than other methods with the highest Rv2 (0.69) and the lowest RMSEv (1.94 mg/kg) for estimating Ni concentration. Therefore, the RF model was chosen for mapping Fe and Ni contents in the study area. The present study revealed that the indirect inversion methods using spectral data can be effectively used to predict heavy metal concentrations. The outcomes supply a new perspective for retrieving heavy metal content based on hyperspectral remotely sensed technology. View Full-Text
Keywords: hyperspectral; soil heavy metals; indirect inversion method; random forest hyperspectral; soil heavy metals; indirect inversion method; random forest
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MDPI and ACS Style

Su, Y.; Guo, B.; Lei, Y.; Zhang, D.; Guo, X.; Suo, L.; Zhao, Y.; Bian, Y. An Indirect Inversion Scheme for Retrieving Toxic Metal Concentrations Using Ground-Based Spectral Data in a Reclamation Coal Mine, China. Water 2022, 14, 2784. https://doi.org/10.3390/w14182784

AMA Style

Su Y, Guo B, Lei Y, Zhang D, Guo X, Suo L, Zhao Y, Bian Y. An Indirect Inversion Scheme for Retrieving Toxic Metal Concentrations Using Ground-Based Spectral Data in a Reclamation Coal Mine, China. Water. 2022; 14(18):2784. https://doi.org/10.3390/w14182784

Chicago/Turabian Style

Su, Yi, Bin Guo, Yongzhi Lei, Dingming Zhang, Xianan Guo, Liang Suo, Yonghua Zhao, and Yi Bian. 2022. "An Indirect Inversion Scheme for Retrieving Toxic Metal Concentrations Using Ground-Based Spectral Data in a Reclamation Coal Mine, China" Water 14, no. 18: 2784. https://doi.org/10.3390/w14182784

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