Changbai Mountain is the source region of the Songhua, Tumen, and Yalu Rivers. It is a famous concentrated distribution area of high-quality mineral water in China, which has a great economic value. Antu County is one of the main distribution areas of basalt and mineral water in Changbai Mountain. The distribution of mineral water has a strong hydraulic relationship with surface water, which constitutes abundant recharge reserves. It is important to study the hydrochemical characteristics and the relationship between surface water and mineral water to provide a theoretical basis for further discussion on the formation process and rational utilization of mineral water resources in Changbai Mountain. A total of 18 water samples in the period of abundant and dry water were collected, including rainwater, mineral water, and surface water. Geostatistics was utilized to analyze the hydrochemical characteristics. Hydrochemical component tracing and stable environmental isotope technology with end-number calculation reveals the transformation relationship between mineral and surface water. The results indicate that: (1) The hydrochemical type is mainly HCO3
-Ca-Na and HCO3
-Ca-Mg type. The average content of H2
is 50.78 mg/L, which reach the standard of high quality metasilicate mineral water. (2) The mineral water formation process is dominated by the water-rock interaction in silicate mineral weathering. Metasilicate came from hydrolytic reaction of silicate and aluminosilicate under acidic conditions. (3) Atmospheric precipitation is the main recharge source, and the recharge area locates in the south nature reserve of the study area. The average retention time of mineral water is 35.5 years, and the recharge ratio of mineral water to surface water is up to 83.7%. This study will provide a theory guide for the protection and rational utilization of groundwater resources in study area and a reference for mineral spring formation study in basalt mountain area.
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License
which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.