Next Article in Journal
Developing a Novel Alum Sludge-Based Floating Treatment Wetland for Natural Water Restoration
Previous Article in Journal
Spatiotemporal Evaluation of Blue and Green Water in Xinjiang River Basin Based on SWAT Model
Previous Article in Special Issue
Determination of Glufosinate-P-Ammonium in Soil Using Precolumn Derivation and Reversed-Phase High-Performance Liquid Chromatography
 
 
Article

What Is the Suitable Sampling Frequency for Water Quality Monitoring in Full-Scale Constructed Wetlands Treating Tail Water?

by 1,2,3, 1,3,*, 1,3 and 2
1
PowerChina Huadong Engineering Corporation Limited, Hangzhou 311122, China
2
School of Life Science, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210046, China
3
Huadong Eco-Environmental Engineering Research Institute of Zhejiang Province, Hangzhou 311122, China
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: Wenqing Shi, Ming Kong, Yongqiang Zhou and Paola Verlicchi
Water 2022, 14(15), 2431; https://doi.org/10.3390/w14152431
Received: 30 May 2022 / Revised: 28 July 2022 / Accepted: 3 August 2022 / Published: 5 August 2022
Three years of hourly COD and NH4+-N measurements for two full-scale integrated constructed wetlands (CWs) treating secondary effluents from sewage treatment plants (STPs) were used to quantify the proper sampling frequency (SF). The modified coefficient of variation (CVm) and average variation rate (VRa) were calculated to monitor the dynamics and annual average performance, respectively. It was found that (1) under CVm 5%, VRa 5%, and VRm 5%, the sampling intervals (SI) of COD can be set as 1.19 h, 526.5 h, and 110.1 h, respectively, and the SI of NH4+-N should be 4.51 h, 66.3 h, and 26.8 h, respectively; (2) under CVm 10%, VRa 10%, and VRm 10%, the monitoring intervals of COD can be set as 11.92 h, 1401.7 h, and 233.5 h, respectively, and the monitoring intervals of NH4+-N should be 30.73 h, 139.3 h, and 50.5 h, respectively. Therefore, to meet the need of monitoring the dynamic changes in data, hourly and 4 h SIs were recommended for COD and NH4+-N evaluation, respectively, when it is necessary to consider the operation and maintenance costs at the same time, 11 h and 30 h SIs were proper for COD and NH4+-N evaluation, respectively. The methods proposed in this study could provide reference to improve the management and evaluation level of full-scale CWs. View Full-Text
Keywords: integrated constructed wetland; secondary effluent; sampling frequency; dynamics monitoring; performance evaluation integrated constructed wetland; secondary effluent; sampling frequency; dynamics monitoring; performance evaluation
Show Figures

Figure 1

MDPI and ACS Style

Song, S.; Sheng, S.; Xu, J.; Zhao, D. What Is the Suitable Sampling Frequency for Water Quality Monitoring in Full-Scale Constructed Wetlands Treating Tail Water? Water 2022, 14, 2431. https://doi.org/10.3390/w14152431

AMA Style

Song S, Sheng S, Xu J, Zhao D. What Is the Suitable Sampling Frequency for Water Quality Monitoring in Full-Scale Constructed Wetlands Treating Tail Water? Water. 2022; 14(15):2431. https://doi.org/10.3390/w14152431

Chicago/Turabian Style

Song, Siyuan, Sheng Sheng, Jianqiang Xu, and Dehua Zhao. 2022. "What Is the Suitable Sampling Frequency for Water Quality Monitoring in Full-Scale Constructed Wetlands Treating Tail Water?" Water 14, no. 15: 2431. https://doi.org/10.3390/w14152431

Find Other Styles
Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Article Access Map by Country/Region

1
Back to TopTop