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Article

Water Recharges Suitability in Kabul Aquifer System within the Upper Indus Basin

by 1,2,3, 2,3,4,5,*, 2,3,6 and 2,3,7
1
Department of Geography, British Columbia University, Vancouver, BC V6T 1Z4, Canada
2
Ushkonyr College of Water Resources, Ushkonyr 040928, Kazakhstan
3
Public Association Promotion of Regions’ Sustainable Development “Tugan olke”, Ushkonyr 040928, Kazakhstan
4
Department of Geosciences, Western Michigan University, Kalamazoo, MI 49008, USA
5
Department of Civil Engineering, Nazarbayev University, Nur Sultan 010000, Kazakhstan
6
Institute of Hydrogeology and Geoecology of Akhmedsafin, Satbayev University, Almaty 050010, Kazakhstan
7
Department of Engineering Geology and Hydrogeology, Faculty of Geology and Mines, Kabul Polytechnic University, Kabul 1005, Afghanistan
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: Elisabetta Preziosi, Harald Hofmann and Luisa Stellato
Water 2022, 14(15), 2390; https://doi.org/10.3390/w14152390
Received: 21 June 2022 / Revised: 27 July 2022 / Accepted: 29 July 2022 / Published: 2 August 2022
Groundwater is the main source of water for drinking, household use, and irrigation in Kabul; however, the water table is dropping due to the excessive extraction over the past two decades. The groundwater restoration criteria selection mainly depends on the techniques used to recharge the aquifer. The design of infiltration basins, for example, requires different technical criteria than the installation of infiltration wells. The different set of parameters is relevant to water being infiltrated at the surface in comparison with water being injected into the aquifers. Restoration of the groundwater resources are complicated and expensive tasks. An inexpensive preliminary investigation of the potential recharge areas, especially in developing countries such as Afghanistan with its complex Upper Indus River Basin, can be reasonably explored. The present research aims to identify the potential recharge sites through employing GIS and Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP) and combining remote sensing information with in situ and geospatial data obtained from related organizations in Afghanistan. These data sets were employed to document nine thematic layers which include slope, drainage density, rainfall, distance to fault, distance to river channel, lithology, and ground water table, land cover, and soil texture. All of the thematic layers were allocated and ranked, based on previous studies, and field surveys and extensive questionnaire surveys carried out with Afghan experts. Based on the collected and processed data output, the groundwater recharge values were determined. These recharge values were grouped into four classes assessing the suitability for recharge as very high (100%), high (63%), moderate (26%), and low (10%). The relative importance of the various geospatial layers was identified and shows that slope (19.2%) is the most important, and faults (3.8%) the least important. The selection of climatic characteristics and geological characteristics as the most important criteria in the artificial recharge of the aquifer are investigated in many regions with good access to data and opportunities for validation and verifications. However, in regions with limited data due to the complexities in collecting data in Afghanistan, proper researching with sufficient data is a challenge. The novelty of this research is the cross-disciplinary approach with incorporation of a compiled set of input data with the set of various criteria (nine criteria based on which layers are formed, including slope, drainage density, rainfall, distance to fault, distance to river channel, lithology, ground water table, land cover, and soil texture) and experts’ questionnaires. The AHP methodology expanded with the cross-disciplinary approach by adding the local experts´ questionnaires survey can be very handy in areas with limited access to data, to provide the preliminary investigations, and reduce expenses on the localized expensive and often dangerous field works. View Full-Text
Keywords: artificial recharge; water supply; aquifer management; the upper indus basin; Afghanistan artificial recharge; water supply; aquifer management; the upper indus basin; Afghanistan
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MDPI and ACS Style

Mahdawi, Q.; Sagin, J.; Absametov, M.; Zaryab, A. Water Recharges Suitability in Kabul Aquifer System within the Upper Indus Basin. Water 2022, 14, 2390. https://doi.org/10.3390/w14152390

AMA Style

Mahdawi Q, Sagin J, Absametov M, Zaryab A. Water Recharges Suitability in Kabul Aquifer System within the Upper Indus Basin. Water. 2022; 14(15):2390. https://doi.org/10.3390/w14152390

Chicago/Turabian Style

Mahdawi, Qasim, Jay Sagin, Malis Absametov, and Abdulhalim Zaryab. 2022. "Water Recharges Suitability in Kabul Aquifer System within the Upper Indus Basin" Water 14, no. 15: 2390. https://doi.org/10.3390/w14152390

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