Next Article in Journal
Performance of Newly Developed Intermittent Aerator for Flat-Sheet Ceramic Membrane in Industrial MBR System
Next Article in Special Issue
Remote Sensing Estimation of Long-Term Total Suspended Matter Concentration from Landsat across Lake Qinghai
Previous Article in Journal
Intelligent Prediction Method for Waterlogging Risk Based on AI and Numerical Model
Previous Article in Special Issue
Artificial and Natural Water Bodies Change in China, 2000–2020
 
 
Article

Monitoring Duckweeds (Lemna minor) in Small Rivers Using Sentinel-2 Satellite Imagery: Application of Vegetation and Water Indices to the Lis River (Portugal)

by 1,2 and 1,2,*
1
University of Coimbra, Faculty of Sciences and Technology, Department of Civil Engineering, Rua Luís Reis Santos, 3030-788 Coimbra, Portugal
2
MARE—Marine and Environmental Sciences Centre/ARNET—Aquatic Research Network, University of Coimbra, 3030-788 Coimbra, Portugal
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: Zongming Wang, Weiguo Jiang, Hongtao Duan, Zhidan Wen, Shanlong Lu and Thomas Meixner
Water 2022, 14(15), 2284; https://doi.org/10.3390/w14152284
Received: 14 June 2022 / Revised: 10 July 2022 / Accepted: 19 July 2022 / Published: 22 July 2022
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Application of Remote Sensing Technology to Water-Related Ecosystems)
Duckweed species, particularly Lemna minor, are widely found in freshwaters all over the world. This macrophyte provides multiple ecosystems’ functions and services, but its excessive proliferation can have negative environmental impacts (including ecological and socio-economic impacts). This work explores the use of remote sensing tools for mapping the dynamics of Lemna minor in open watercourses, which could contribute to identifying suitable monitoring programs and integrated management practices. The study focuses on a selected section of the Lis River (Portugal), a small river that is often affected by water pollution. The study approach uses spatiotemporal multispectral data from the Sentinel-2 satellite and from 2021 and investigates the potential of remote sensing-based vegetation and water indices (Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI), Green Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (GNDVI), Normalized Difference Aquatic Vegetation Index (NDAVI), Green Red Vegetation Index (GRVI), Normalized Difference Water Index (NDWI)) for detecting duckweeds’ infestation and its severity. The NDAVI was identified as the vegetation index (VI) that better depicted the presence of duckweeds in the surface of the water course; however, results obtained for the other VIs are also encouraging, with NDVI showing a response that is very similar to NDAVI. Results are promising regarding the ability of remote sensing products to provide insight into the behavior of Lemna minor and to identify problematic sections along small watercourses. View Full-Text
Keywords: aquatic weeds; open watercourses; remote sensing; multispectral satellite sensors; multispectral-based indices; environmental monitoring aquatic weeds; open watercourses; remote sensing; multispectral satellite sensors; multispectral-based indices; environmental monitoring
Show Figures

Figure 1

MDPI and ACS Style

Gerardo, R.; de Lima, I.P. Monitoring Duckweeds (Lemna minor) in Small Rivers Using Sentinel-2 Satellite Imagery: Application of Vegetation and Water Indices to the Lis River (Portugal). Water 2022, 14, 2284. https://doi.org/10.3390/w14152284

AMA Style

Gerardo R, de Lima IP. Monitoring Duckweeds (Lemna minor) in Small Rivers Using Sentinel-2 Satellite Imagery: Application of Vegetation and Water Indices to the Lis River (Portugal). Water. 2022; 14(15):2284. https://doi.org/10.3390/w14152284

Chicago/Turabian Style

Gerardo, Romeu, and Isabel P. de Lima. 2022. "Monitoring Duckweeds (Lemna minor) in Small Rivers Using Sentinel-2 Satellite Imagery: Application of Vegetation and Water Indices to the Lis River (Portugal)" Water 14, no. 15: 2284. https://doi.org/10.3390/w14152284

Find Other Styles
Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Article Access Map by Country/Region

1
Back to TopTop