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Article

Prospective Water Balance Scenarios (2015–2035) for the Management of São Francisco River Basin, Eastern Brazil

1
Nemus—Gestão e Requalificação Ambiental, Lda. Estrada Paço do Lumiar, Campus do Lumiar, Edifício D, 1649-038 Lisbon, Portugal
2
Programme in Sustainable Management Systems, Institute of Geosciences, University Federal Fluminense, Av. Litorânea, s/n, Boa Viagem, Niterói 24.210-340, RJ, Brazil
3
CERIS, Instituto Superior Técnico, Universidade de Lisboa, Av. Rovisco Pais, 1, 1049-001 Lisboa, Portugal
4
Programme in Geosciences (Geochemistry), University Federal Fluminense, Campus do Valonguinho, Centro, Niterói 24020-141, RJ, Brazil
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: José Álvarez-García, Amador Durán-Sánchez and María de la Cruz del Río-Rama
Water 2022, 14(15), 2283; https://doi.org/10.3390/w14152283
Received: 24 May 2022 / Revised: 17 July 2022 / Accepted: 18 July 2022 / Published: 22 July 2022
The need for renewed and healthier water resources pushes human society to develop new management procedures that warrant provisions and that are compatible with the population and economic growth. The São Francisco River is one of the main surface water resources in Brazil and is facing environmental challenges that threaten its sustainability. In the scope of growing conflicts over water resources in the São Francisco River Basin, the present research applied surface and groundwater balances for the current situation and for three prospective water demand scenarios (a pessimistic, an optimistic and an equilibrated) referring to 2025 and 2035, considering the multiple uses of the basin. For the surface water balance, the AcquaNet Decision Support System was used, whereas for the groundwater balance, the relationship between the withdrawal flow for consumptive uses and the exploitable flow was applied. The results evidenced that there are scenarios in which the available surface water resources will not be sufficient to satisfy the demanded projections. The groundwater balance was characterized as more favourable; however, the lack of knowledge creates uncertainties about these resources. Beyond its limitations, research was able to define geographical water availability and balance, allowing the indication of precise management procedures. View Full-Text
Keywords: water sustainability; conflicting uses; surface water; groundwater; water accountability water sustainability; conflicting uses; surface water; groundwater; water accountability
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    Description: SM 1 – Comparison of the recorded and simulated flows at various cross sections of the São Francisco River. Recorded streamflow data for the model validation the model were obtained from ANA monitoring database (HIDROWEB) and from the National Electricity System Operator (ONS). SM 2 – Synthesis of the surface water balance (demand/ availability ratio) SM 3 – Synthesis of the surface water balance (ACQUANET) – domestic urban and rural supply (remaining sub-basins) SM 4 – Synthesis of the surface water balance (ACQUANET) – industry (remaining sub-basins) SM 5 – Synthesis of the surface water balance (ACQUANET) – farming (remaining sub-basins) SM 6 – Renewable groundwater reserve values, per aquifer system, resulting from the harmonization of the groundwater balance, obtained from the current state of hydrologic knowledge of aquifers and from the integrated analysis of surface and groundwater flow SM 7 – Water balance for domestic urban and rural supply (DUR) in São Francisco River Basin – State divides, physiographic regions, sub-basins considered in the São Francisco River Basin Ten-year Plan (2004 - 2013), current situation and future scenarios/year: a) - Current, b) – A2025, c) – B2025, d) – C2025, e) – A2035, f) – B20235, g) – C2035. SM 8 – Water balance for industry (I) in São Francisco River Basin – State divides, physiographic regions, sub-basins considered in the São Francisco River Basin Ten-year Plan (2004 - 2013), current situation and future scenarios/year: a) - Current, b) – A2025, c) – B2025, d) – C2025, e) – A2035, f) – B20235, g) – C2035. SM 9 – Water balance for farming (F, mainly irrigation) in São Francisco River Basin – State divides, physiographic regions, sub-basins considered in the São Francisco River Basin Ten-year Plan (2004 - 2013), current situation and future scenarios/year: a) - Current, b) – A2025, c) – B2025, d) – C2025, e) – A2035, f) – B20235, g) – C2035.
MDPI and ACS Style

Bettencourt, P.; de Oliveira, R.P.; Fulgêncio, C.; Canas, Â.; Wasserman, J.C. Prospective Water Balance Scenarios (2015–2035) for the Management of São Francisco River Basin, Eastern Brazil. Water 2022, 14, 2283. https://doi.org/10.3390/w14152283

AMA Style

Bettencourt P, de Oliveira RP, Fulgêncio C, Canas Â, Wasserman JC. Prospective Water Balance Scenarios (2015–2035) for the Management of São Francisco River Basin, Eastern Brazil. Water. 2022; 14(15):2283. https://doi.org/10.3390/w14152283

Chicago/Turabian Style

Bettencourt, Pedro, Rodrigo Proença de Oliveira, Cláudia Fulgêncio, Ângela Canas, and Julio Cesar Wasserman. 2022. "Prospective Water Balance Scenarios (2015–2035) for the Management of São Francisco River Basin, Eastern Brazil" Water 14, no. 15: 2283. https://doi.org/10.3390/w14152283

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