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Article

Long-Term Study of Monitoring History and Change Trends in Surface Water Quality in China

1
China National Environmental Monitoring Centre, Beijing 100012, China
2
Department of Health, Ethics & Society, CAPHRI Care and Public Health Research Institute, Faculty of Health, Medicine and Life Sciences, Maastricht University, 6200 MD Maastricht, The Netherlands
3
Key Laboratory of Land Surface Pattern and Simulation, Institute of Geographical Sciences and Natural Resources Research, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100101, China
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
These authors contributed equally to this work.
Academic Editors: George Arhonditsis and Danny D. Reible
Water 2022, 14(13), 2134; https://doi.org/10.3390/w14132134
Received: 21 April 2022 / Revised: 14 June 2022 / Accepted: 28 June 2022 / Published: 4 July 2022
To investigate the monitoring history and long-term change trends in surface water quality in China since the reform and opening up, the history of surface water environment monitoring is summarized, including monitoring scope, monitoring methods, and technical requirements. Temporal and spatial patterns of surface water quality in China were analyzed based on the monitoring results. In the past 40 years, the monitoring targets for surface water quality have been continuously improved, the frequency of monitoring has become more science-based, and the monitoring indicators are now comprehensive. Overall, the temporal change trend in surface water quality has followed a “fluctuating changes stage—rapid deterioration stage—fluctuations stalemate stage—rapid improvement stage” pattern. However, the current regional surface water quality is still in a polluted status, and there is a gap between surface water quality status and the goal of building a well-off society. At present, China’s surface water pollution is prone to high numbers of incidents and the treatment of surface water pollution has entered a crucial stage. The potential for the continuous reduction of major pollutant discharges has become more challenging, and the marginal cost for pollution control has increased. It is very difficult to comprehensively solve the outstanding water environment problems. In addition to strengthening the existing work on surface water quality control, it is also necessary to strengthen the work of risk identification, early warning, and regulation implementation of the surface water environment. During the 14th year plan period (2021–2025), the overall planning on water resources, water ecology, and water quality will be implemented, and beautiful rivers and lakes will be created. View Full-Text
Keywords: surface water; monitoring history; change trends in surface water quality; water quality protection surface water; monitoring history; change trends in surface water quality; water quality protection
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MDPI and ACS Style

Zhang, F.; Lin, L.; Li, W.; Fang, D.; Lv, Z.; Li, M.; Ma, G.; Wang, Y.; Wang, L.; He, L. Long-Term Study of Monitoring History and Change Trends in Surface Water Quality in China. Water 2022, 14, 2134. https://doi.org/10.3390/w14132134

AMA Style

Zhang F, Lin L, Li W, Fang D, Lv Z, Li M, Ma G, Wang Y, Wang L, He L. Long-Term Study of Monitoring History and Change Trends in Surface Water Quality in China. Water. 2022; 14(13):2134. https://doi.org/10.3390/w14132134

Chicago/Turabian Style

Zhang, Fengying, Lanyu Lin, Wenpan Li, Dekun Fang, Zhuo Lv, Mingsheng Li, Guangwen Ma, Yeyao Wang, Li Wang, and Lihuan He. 2022. "Long-Term Study of Monitoring History and Change Trends in Surface Water Quality in China" Water 14, no. 13: 2134. https://doi.org/10.3390/w14132134

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