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National-Scale Assessment of Climate Change Impacts on Two Native Freshwater Fish Using a Habitat Suitability Model

1
Division of Environmental Science & Ecological Engineering, Korea University, Seoul 02841, Korea
2
Department of Environmental Engineering, Chungnam National University, Daejeon 34134, Korea
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: José Maria Santos
Water 2022, 14(11), 1825; https://doi.org/10.3390/w14111825
Received: 10 April 2022 / Revised: 30 May 2022 / Accepted: 1 June 2022 / Published: 6 June 2022
(This article belongs to the Section Biodiversity and Functionality of Aquatic Ecosystems)
Climate change, which has the potential to alter water flow and temperature in aquatic environments, can influence the freshwater fish habitat. This study used an ecological habitat suitability model (EHSM), which integrates hydraulic (water depth and velocity) and physiologic (water temperature) suitability, to investigate the impact of climate change on two native freshwater fish species (Zacco platypus and Nipponocypris koreanus) in South Korea. The model predicted that in 2080 (2076–2085), the decrease in average ecological habitat suitability (EHS) will be higher for N. koreanus (19.2%) than for Z. platypus (9.87%) under the representative concentration pathway (RCP) 8.5 scenario. Under the same condition, EHS for Z. platypus and N. koreanus at 36.5% and 44.4% of 115 sites, respectively, were expected to degrade significantly (p < 0.05). However, the habitat degradation for Z. platypus and N. koreanus was much lower (7.8% and 10.4%, respectively) under the RCP 4.5 scenario, suggesting a preventive measure for carbon dioxide emission. Partial correlation analysis indicated that the number of hot days (i.e., days on which the temperature exceeds the heat stress threshold) is the variable most significantly (p < 0.05) related to EHS changes for both species. This study suggests that the EHSM incorporating the effect of water temperature on the growth and heat stress of fish can be a promising model for the assessment of climate change impacts on habitat suitability for freshwater fish. View Full-Text
Keywords: climate change; flow regime; freshwater fish; habitat suitability; heat stress; thermal regime climate change; flow regime; freshwater fish; habitat suitability; heat stress; thermal regime
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MDPI and ACS Style

Shim, T.; Kim, Z.; Seo, D.; Jung, J. National-Scale Assessment of Climate Change Impacts on Two Native Freshwater Fish Using a Habitat Suitability Model. Water 2022, 14, 1825. https://doi.org/10.3390/w14111825

AMA Style

Shim T, Kim Z, Seo D, Jung J. National-Scale Assessment of Climate Change Impacts on Two Native Freshwater Fish Using a Habitat Suitability Model. Water. 2022; 14(11):1825. https://doi.org/10.3390/w14111825

Chicago/Turabian Style

Shim, Taeyong, Zhonghyun Kim, Dongil Seo, and Jinho Jung. 2022. "National-Scale Assessment of Climate Change Impacts on Two Native Freshwater Fish Using a Habitat Suitability Model" Water 14, no. 11: 1825. https://doi.org/10.3390/w14111825

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