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Article

A Combined O/U-Tube Oscillatory Water Tunnel for Fluid Flow and Sediment Transport Studies: The Hydrodynamics and Genetic Algorithm

1
Department of Marine Environment and Engineering, National Sun Yat-sen University, Kaohsiung 804, Taiwan
2
Long Win Science and Technology Corporation, Yangmei, Taoyuan 326, Taiwan
3
Department of Water Resources and Environmental Engineering, Tamkang University, New Taipei City 251, Taiwan
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Bommanna Krishnappan
Water 2022, 14(11), 1767; https://doi.org/10.3390/w14111767
Received: 10 May 2022 / Revised: 27 May 2022 / Accepted: 28 May 2022 / Published: 31 May 2022
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Experimental Hydraulics, Coast and Ocean Hydrodynamics)
This study proposes an oscillatory water tunnel (O/U-tube) equipped with two impellers to drive flows. The O/U-tube consists of two modes: U-tube mode and O-tube mode. The former can generate oscillatory flow, while the latter can produce both oscillatory and unidirectional flows with velocities up to 1.6 m/s. The hydrodynamics of the U-tube and O-tube modes were examined analytically. For the U-tube mode, a sine-varying rotational speed for the impeller caused higher harmonic components for the velocity, owing to the local inertia and gravity forces. In the steady state of the O-tube mode, owing to the resistance force, the flow velocity was proportional to the rotational speed. To generate the target flow conditions, two open-loop control schemes were proposed according to the analytic approach for the U-tube mode and a genetic algorithm for the O-tube mode. The analytic approach was based on a hydrodynamic model with a given flow condition. In the genetic algorithm, the rotational speed was represented by a square root of the Fourier series. The optimal coefficients of the Fourier series to generate the target flow were determined by using the genetic algorithm and the hydrodynamic model. Both approaches were experimentally validated. Consequently, the O/U-tube with the open-loop schemes can be used to generate the desired oscillatory and unidirectional flows. View Full-Text
Keywords: oscillatory water tunnel; O/U-tube; hydrodynamics; sediment transport; genetic algorithm oscillatory water tunnel; O/U-tube; hydrodynamics; sediment transport; genetic algorithm
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MDPI and ACS Style

Lee, C.-H.; Chen, J.-Y.; Lee, F.-S.; Chang, L.-C. A Combined O/U-Tube Oscillatory Water Tunnel for Fluid Flow and Sediment Transport Studies: The Hydrodynamics and Genetic Algorithm. Water 2022, 14, 1767. https://doi.org/10.3390/w14111767

AMA Style

Lee C-H, Chen J-Y, Lee F-S, Chang L-C. A Combined O/U-Tube Oscillatory Water Tunnel for Fluid Flow and Sediment Transport Studies: The Hydrodynamics and Genetic Algorithm. Water. 2022; 14(11):1767. https://doi.org/10.3390/w14111767

Chicago/Turabian Style

Lee, Cheng-Hsien, Jia-You Chen, Fang-Shou Lee, and Li-Chiu Chang. 2022. "A Combined O/U-Tube Oscillatory Water Tunnel for Fluid Flow and Sediment Transport Studies: The Hydrodynamics and Genetic Algorithm" Water 14, no. 11: 1767. https://doi.org/10.3390/w14111767

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