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Analysis of ENSO-Driven Variability, and Long-Term Changes, of Extreme Precipitation Indices in Colombia, Using the Satellite Rainfall Estimates CHIRPS

1
Research Group Ciencia e Ingeniería del Agua y el Ambiente, Civil Enginnering Deparment, School of Enginnering, Pontificia Universidad Javeriana, Bogotá 110231, Colombia
2
Institute for Technology and Resources Management in the Tropics and Subtropics (ITT), Technology Arts Sciences TH Köln, 50679 Cologne, Germany
3
Faculty of Spatial Planning, TU Dortmund University, 44221 Dortmund, Germany
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
These authors contributed equally to this work.
Academic Editor: Scott Curtis
Water 2022, 14(11), 1733; https://doi.org/10.3390/w14111733
Received: 4 April 2022 / Revised: 11 May 2022 / Accepted: 18 May 2022 / Published: 28 May 2022
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Satellite-Based Method for Monitoring Hydrological Changes)
Climate change includes the change of the long-term average values and the change of the tails of probability density functions, where the extreme events are located. However, obtaining average values are more straightforward than the high temporal resolution information necessary to catch the extreme events on those tails. Such information is difficult to get in areas lacking sufficient rain stations. Thanks to the development of Satellite Precipitation Estimates with a daily resolution, this problem has been overcome, so Extreme Precipitation Indices (EPI) can be calculated for the entire Colombian territory. However, Colombia is strongly affected by the ENSO (El Niño—Southern Oscillation) phenomenon. Therefore, it is pertinent to ask if the EPI’s long-term change due to climate change is more critical than the anomalies due to climate variability induced by the warm and cold phases of ENSO (El Niño and La Niña, respectively). In this work, we built EPI annual time series at each grid-point of the selected Satellite Precipitation Estimate (CHIRPSv2) over Colombia to answer the previous question. Then, the Mann-Whitney-Wilcoxon test was used to compare the samples drawn in each case (i.e., change tests due to both long-term and climatic variability). After performing the analyses, we realized that the importance of the change depends on the region analyzed and the considered EPI. However, some general conclusions became evident: during El Niño years (La Niña), EPI’s anomaly follows the general trend of reduction -drier conditions- (increase; -wetter conditions-) observed in Colombian annual precipitation amount, but only on the Pacific, the Caribbean, and the Andean region. In the Eastern plains of Colombia (Orinoquía and Amazonian region), EPI show a certain insensitivity to change due to climatic variability. On the other hand, EPI’s long-term changes in the Pacific, the Caribbean, and the Andean region are spatially scattered. Still, long-term changes in the eastern plains have a moderate spatial consistency with statistical significance. View Full-Text
Keywords: Colombia; Extreme Precipitation Index (EPI); long-term change; climate change; climate variability; Satellite Precipitation Estimate (SPE); CHIRPS; Mann-Whitney-Wilcoxon test; trend analysis Colombia; Extreme Precipitation Index (EPI); long-term change; climate change; climate variability; Satellite Precipitation Estimate (SPE); CHIRPS; Mann-Whitney-Wilcoxon test; trend analysis
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MDPI and ACS Style

Giraldo-Osorio, J.D.; Trujillo-Osorio, D.E.; Baez-Villanueva, O.M. Analysis of ENSO-Driven Variability, and Long-Term Changes, of Extreme Precipitation Indices in Colombia, Using the Satellite Rainfall Estimates CHIRPS. Water 2022, 14, 1733. https://doi.org/10.3390/w14111733

AMA Style

Giraldo-Osorio JD, Trujillo-Osorio DE, Baez-Villanueva OM. Analysis of ENSO-Driven Variability, and Long-Term Changes, of Extreme Precipitation Indices in Colombia, Using the Satellite Rainfall Estimates CHIRPS. Water. 2022; 14(11):1733. https://doi.org/10.3390/w14111733

Chicago/Turabian Style

Giraldo-Osorio, Juan Diego, David Enrique Trujillo-Osorio, and Oscar Manuel Baez-Villanueva. 2022. "Analysis of ENSO-Driven Variability, and Long-Term Changes, of Extreme Precipitation Indices in Colombia, Using the Satellite Rainfall Estimates CHIRPS" Water 14, no. 11: 1733. https://doi.org/10.3390/w14111733

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