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Article

Probabilistic Minimum Night Flow Estimation in Water Distribution Networks and Comparison with the Water Balance Approach: Large-Scale Application to the City Center of Patras in Western Greece

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Department of Civil Engineering, University of Patras, 26504 Patras, Greece
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American College of Greece, Deree, School of Business and Economics Department of Maritime Transport and Logistics, 15342 Agia Paraskevi, Greece
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Dipartimento di Ingegneria Civile, Ambientale ed Architettura Università degli Studi di Cagliari, 09123 Cagliari, Italy
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Municipal Enterprise of Water Supply and Sewerage of the City of Patras, 26333 Patras, Greece
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Francesco De Paola
Water 2022, 14(1), 98; https://doi.org/10.3390/w14010098
Received: 25 November 2021 / Revised: 23 December 2021 / Accepted: 27 December 2021 / Published: 4 January 2022
(This article belongs to the Section Urban Water Management)
Quantification of water losses (WL) in water distribution networks (WDNs) is a crucial task towards the development of proper strategies to reduce them. Currently, WL estimation methods rely on semi-empirical assumptions and different implementation strategies that increase the uncertainty of the obtained estimates. In this work, we compare the effectiveness and robustness of two widely applied WL estimation approaches found in the international literature: (a) the water balance, or top-down, approach introduced by the International Water Association (IWA), and (b) the bottom-up or minimum night flow (MNF) approach, based on a recently proposed probabilistic MNF estimation method. In doing so, we use users’ consumption and flow-pressure data from the 4 largest pressure management areas (PMAs) of the WDN of the city of Patras (the third largest city in Greece), which consist of more than 200 km of pipeline, cover the entire city center of Patras, and serve approximately 58,000 consumers. The obtained results show that: (a) when MNF estimation is done in a rigorous statistical setting from high resolution flow-pressure timeseries, and (b) there is sufficient understanding of the consumption types and patterns during day and night hours, the two approaches effectively converge, allowing for more reliable estimation of the individual WL components. In addition, when high resolution flow-pressure timeseries are available at the inlets of PMAs, the suggested version of the bottom-up approach with probabilistic estimation of MNF should be preferred as less sensitive, while allowing for confidence interval estimation of the individual components of water losses and development of proper strategies to reduce them. View Full-Text
Keywords: water losses; water balance; minimum night flow; water distribution networks; real losses; leakage water losses; water balance; minimum night flow; water distribution networks; real losses; leakage
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MDPI and ACS Style

Serafeim, A.V.; Kokosalakis, G.; Deidda, R.; Karathanasi, I.; Langousis, A. Probabilistic Minimum Night Flow Estimation in Water Distribution Networks and Comparison with the Water Balance Approach: Large-Scale Application to the City Center of Patras in Western Greece. Water 2022, 14, 98. https://doi.org/10.3390/w14010098

AMA Style

Serafeim AV, Kokosalakis G, Deidda R, Karathanasi I, Langousis A. Probabilistic Minimum Night Flow Estimation in Water Distribution Networks and Comparison with the Water Balance Approach: Large-Scale Application to the City Center of Patras in Western Greece. Water. 2022; 14(1):98. https://doi.org/10.3390/w14010098

Chicago/Turabian Style

Serafeim, Athanasios V., George Kokosalakis, Roberto Deidda, Irene Karathanasi, and Andreas Langousis. 2022. "Probabilistic Minimum Night Flow Estimation in Water Distribution Networks and Comparison with the Water Balance Approach: Large-Scale Application to the City Center of Patras in Western Greece" Water 14, no. 1: 98. https://doi.org/10.3390/w14010098

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