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Article

Groundwater Quality Evaluation of the Dawu Water Source Area Based on Water Quality Index (WQI): Comparison between Delphi Method and Multivariate Statistical Analysis Method

1
Institute of Marine Science and Technology, Shandong University, Qingdao 266237, China
2
Shandong Institute of Geological Survey, Jinan 250014, China
3
School of Environmental Studies, China University of Geosciences, Wuhan 430074, China
4
School of Environmental Science and Engineering, Shandong University, Qingdao 266237, China
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Bommanna Krishnappan
Water 2021, 13(8), 1127; https://doi.org/10.3390/w13081127
Received: 7 March 2021 / Revised: 9 April 2021 / Accepted: 16 April 2021 / Published: 20 April 2021
(This article belongs to the Section Aquatic Systems—Quality and Contamination)
Water quality in the Dawu water source area is primarily studied through the traditional water quality assessment method that measures the chemical parameters of water against the existing standards, which is simple but cannot accurately describe the water quality. Although the water quality index (WQI) proposed by Horton is widely used for comprehensive water quality evaluation, parameter selection and weight determination are primarily based on the Delphi method, which is subjective and random. Moreover, in groundwater evaluation, the focus is primarily laid on general chemical parameters, such as Total Dissolved Solids, hydrogen ion concentration, Electrical Conductivity, and heavy metals, such as Hydrargyrum, Arsenic, and Chromium, with limited consideration for organic pollutants. In this study, WQI technology in combination with the entropy weight method was used to evaluate the groundwater environmental quality of the Dawu water source area, and the scientific results were analyzed by comparing the full index, Delphi, and multivariate statistical analysis methods. The results showed that the groundwater in the Dawu water source area generally had good quality and was potable and that the application of multivariate statistical analysis method was more suitable than the Delphi method in the index selection process. View Full-Text
Keywords: Dawu water source area; groundwater quality; water quality index (WQI); Delphi method; multivariate statistical analysis; entropy weight method Dawu water source area; groundwater quality; water quality index (WQI); Delphi method; multivariate statistical analysis; entropy weight method
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MDPI and ACS Style

Liu, Z.; Zhu, H.; Cui, X.; Wang, W.; Luan, X.; Chen, L.; Cui, Z.; Zhang, L. Groundwater Quality Evaluation of the Dawu Water Source Area Based on Water Quality Index (WQI): Comparison between Delphi Method and Multivariate Statistical Analysis Method. Water 2021, 13, 1127. https://doi.org/10.3390/w13081127

AMA Style

Liu Z, Zhu H, Cui X, Wang W, Luan X, Chen L, Cui Z, Zhang L. Groundwater Quality Evaluation of the Dawu Water Source Area Based on Water Quality Index (WQI): Comparison between Delphi Method and Multivariate Statistical Analysis Method. Water. 2021; 13(8):1127. https://doi.org/10.3390/w13081127

Chicago/Turabian Style

Liu, Zhizheng; Zhu, Henghua; Cui, Xiaowei; Wang, Wei; Luan, Xiaoyu; Chen, Lu; Cui, Zhaojie; Zhang, Long. 2021. "Groundwater Quality Evaluation of the Dawu Water Source Area Based on Water Quality Index (WQI): Comparison between Delphi Method and Multivariate Statistical Analysis Method" Water 13, no. 8: 1127. https://doi.org/10.3390/w13081127

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