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Article

Evaluation of Incipient Motion of Sand Particles by Different Indirect Methods in Erosion Function Apparatus

1
Agricultural Facilities Engineering Laboratory, Graduate School of Agriculture, Kyoto University, Kitashirakawa-Oiwakecho, Sakyo-ku, Kyoto 606-8502, Japan
2
Rural Development Academy (RDA), Bogura 5842, Bangladesh
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Matjaž Mikoš
Water 2021, 13(8), 1118; https://doi.org/10.3390/w13081118
Received: 16 March 2021 / Revised: 12 April 2021 / Accepted: 14 April 2021 / Published: 19 April 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sediment Transport and River Morphology)
An experiment was carried out in an acrylic glass-sided re-circulating closed conduit with a rectangular cross section, which is similar in construction to an erosion function apparatus. An adjustable sand box, made of acrylic glass, was attached to the bottom of the conduit as the sand zone or the test section. The hydraulics of the flow in the erosion function apparatus is complicated due to the limited part of the non-smooth and erodible soil surface attached to the closed conduit. As the bed shear stress changes with the bed roughness, even though the flow velocity does not change, establishing a method to estimate the incipient motion is an important challenge for an erosion function apparatus. The present study was conducted to explore the incipient motion of sands from bed shear stress estimated by four different indirect methods on both the sand bed and the smooth bed installed in the erosion function apparatus. In the experiment, particle image velocimetry (PIV) was used to investigate flow dynamics and incipient motion in terms of dimensionless critical bed shear stress. The experimental results show that the bed shear stress estimated from the log-law profiles in the sand zone and the smooth zones are relatively higher than those of the other indirect methods. The dimensionless critical bed shear stress of threshold condition evaluated by all indirect methods was found in good agreement with those of previous results in both zones. The Manning roughness and Darcy–Weisbach friction coefficients were evaluated based on the critical shear velocity at the incipient motion. Although these coefficients were found slightly greater in the smooth zone than in the sand zone, in both zones, they showed good agreement with previous studies. View Full-Text
Keywords: erosion function apparatus; shear velocity; PIV; bed shear stress; Reynolds shear stress; turbulence intensities; resistance characteristics erosion function apparatus; shear velocity; PIV; bed shear stress; Reynolds shear stress; turbulence intensities; resistance characteristics
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MDPI and ACS Style

Jewel, A.; Fujisawa, K.; Murakami, A. Evaluation of Incipient Motion of Sand Particles by Different Indirect Methods in Erosion Function Apparatus. Water 2021, 13, 1118. https://doi.org/10.3390/w13081118

AMA Style

Jewel A, Fujisawa K, Murakami A. Evaluation of Incipient Motion of Sand Particles by Different Indirect Methods in Erosion Function Apparatus. Water. 2021; 13(8):1118. https://doi.org/10.3390/w13081118

Chicago/Turabian Style

Jewel, Arif; Fujisawa, Kazunori; Murakami, Akira. 2021. "Evaluation of Incipient Motion of Sand Particles by Different Indirect Methods in Erosion Function Apparatus" Water 13, no. 8: 1118. https://doi.org/10.3390/w13081118

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