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Article

Analytical Models of Velocity, Reynolds Stress and Turbulence Intensity in Ice-Covered Channels

1
State Key Laboratory of Eco-Hydraulics in Northwest Arid Region of China, Xi’an University of Technology, Xi’an 710048, China
2
Yellow River Engineering Consulting Co., Ltd., Zhengzhou 450003, China
3
Southwest Branch of China Construction Third Engineering Bureau Group Co., Ltd., Chengdu 610041, China
4
PowerChina Northwest Engineering Corporation Limited, Xi’an 710065, China
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: Paweł M. Rowiński and Jueyi Sui
Water 2021, 13(8), 1107; https://doi.org/10.3390/w13081107
Received: 28 February 2021 / Revised: 11 April 2021 / Accepted: 14 April 2021 / Published: 17 April 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue River Hydraulics under Ice-Covered Flow Conditions)
Ice cover in an open channel can influence the flow structure, such as the flow velocity, Reynolds stress and turbulence intensity. This study analyzes the vertical distributions of velocity, Reynolds stress and turbulence intensity in fully and partially ice-covered channels by theoretical methods and laboratory experiments. According to the experimental data, the vertical profile of longitudinal velocities follows an approximately symmetry form. Different from the open channel flow, the maximum value of longitudinal velocity occurs near the middle of the water depth, which is close to the channel bed with a smoother boundary roughness compared to the ice cover. The measured Reynolds stress has a linear distribution along the vertical axis, and the vertical distribution of measured turbulence intensity follows an exponential law. Theoretically, a two-power-law function is presented to obtain the analytical formula of the longitudinal velocity. In addition, the vertical profile of Reynolds stress is obtained by the simplified momentum equation and the vertical profile of turbulence intensity is investigated by an improved exponential model. The predicted data from the analytical models agree well with the experimental ones, thereby confirming that the analytical models are feasible to predict the vertical distribution of velocity, Reynolds stress and turbulence intensity in ice-covered channels. The proposed models can offer an important theoretical reference for future study about the sediment transport and contaminant dispersion in ice-covered channels. View Full-Text
Keywords: ice-covered channel; longitudinal velocity; Reynolds stress; turbulence intensity ice-covered channel; longitudinal velocity; Reynolds stress; turbulence intensity
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MDPI and ACS Style

Zhang, J.; Wang, W.; Li, Z.; Li, Q.; Zhong, Y.; Xia, Z.; Qiu, H. Analytical Models of Velocity, Reynolds Stress and Turbulence Intensity in Ice-Covered Channels. Water 2021, 13, 1107. https://doi.org/10.3390/w13081107

AMA Style

Zhang J, Wang W, Li Z, Li Q, Zhong Y, Xia Z, Qiu H. Analytical Models of Velocity, Reynolds Stress and Turbulence Intensity in Ice-Covered Channels. Water. 2021; 13(8):1107. https://doi.org/10.3390/w13081107

Chicago/Turabian Style

Zhang, Jiao; Wang, Wen; Li, Zhanbin; Li, Qian; Zhong, Ya; Xia, Zhaohui; Qiu, Hunan. 2021. "Analytical Models of Velocity, Reynolds Stress and Turbulence Intensity in Ice-Covered Channels" Water 13, no. 8: 1107. https://doi.org/10.3390/w13081107

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