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Article

Influence of Community Factors on Water Saving in a Mega City after Implementing the Progressive Price Schemes

1
School of Environmental and Chemical Engineering, Shanghai University, Shanghai 200444, China
2
School of Economics, Shanghai University, Shanghai 200444, China
3
Shanghai Water Supply Management Office, Shanghai 200081, China
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Julio Berbel
Water 2021, 13(8), 1097; https://doi.org/10.3390/w13081097
Received: 2 March 2021 / Revised: 2 April 2021 / Accepted: 13 April 2021 / Published: 16 April 2021
(This article belongs to the Section Water Resources Management, Policy and Governance)
A progressive price scheme (PPS) has been implemented in Shanghai since 2013 in consideration of residents’ ability to pay, and charges are based on the actual water consumption of the residents, in an effort to balance the rational allocation of water resources and the goal of saving water between rich and poor families. In the current work, the effect of the PPS for water use was evaluated based on the water use of 6661 households from 14 communities in Shanghai. It was found that the PPS did not reduce household water consumption when comparing the water consumption per household both before and after the implementation of the PPS policy. To investigate the weakness of the PPS, a principal component analysis (PCA) and a hierarchical cluster analysis (HCA) were conducted to access the relationships between mean household water use and community factors such as housing price, management fees, and the number of parking sites. Moreover, a significant inverted U-shaped curve between housing price and water use was found, which demonstrates that rental households shared by several tenants were the main consumers of residential water, and they were not sensitive to the water price improvement in the PPS due to sharing water prices. Therefore, a proposal was made in this work to increase the proportion of water fee expenditure in the total household income and to use 3% as the benchmark for water affordability. Our results provided a new picture of residential water use in big cities and a method for saving and balancing urban water resources. View Full-Text
Keywords: household water use; water management; hierarchical cluster analysis; principal component analysis; policy evaluation household water use; water management; hierarchical cluster analysis; principal component analysis; policy evaluation
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MDPI and ACS Style

Han, S.; Zhou, J.; Liu, Z.; Zhang, L.; Huang, X. Influence of Community Factors on Water Saving in a Mega City after Implementing the Progressive Price Schemes. Water 2021, 13, 1097. https://doi.org/10.3390/w13081097

AMA Style

Han S, Zhou J, Liu Z, Zhang L, Huang X. Influence of Community Factors on Water Saving in a Mega City after Implementing the Progressive Price Schemes. Water. 2021; 13(8):1097. https://doi.org/10.3390/w13081097

Chicago/Turabian Style

Han, Shaohong; Zhou, Jizhi; Liu, Zeyuan; Zhang, Lijian; Huang, Xin. 2021. "Influence of Community Factors on Water Saving in a Mega City after Implementing the Progressive Price Schemes" Water 13, no. 8: 1097. https://doi.org/10.3390/w13081097

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