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Article

Removal of Carbamazepine onto Modified Zeolitic Tuff in Different Water Matrices: Batch and Continuous Flow Experiments

1
Emerging Pollutants Research Unit, Royal Scientific Society, Amman 11941, Jordan
2
Biocatalysis and Biosynthesis Research Unit, Royal Scientific Society, Amman 11941, Jordan
3
College of Engineering, University of Nebraska–Lincoln, Omaha, NE 68583, USA
4
Water Sciences Laboratory, University of Nebraska, Lincoln, NE 68583, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Juan Carlos Leyva Diaz
Water 2021, 13(8), 1084; https://doi.org/10.3390/w13081084
Received: 12 March 2021 / Revised: 31 March 2021 / Accepted: 5 April 2021 / Published: 15 April 2021
Carbamazepine (CBZ) is the most frequently detected pharmaceutical residues in aquatic environments effluent by wastewater treatment plants. Batch and column experiments were conducted to evaluate the removal of CBZ from ultra-pure water and wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) effluent using raw zeolitic tuff (RZT) and surfactant modified zeolite (SMZ). Point zero net charge (pHpzc), X-ray diffraction (XRD), X-ray fluorescence (XRF), and Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) were investigated for adsorbents to evaluate the physiochemical changes resulted from the modification process using Hexadecyltrimethylammonium bromide (HDTMA-Br). XRD and FTIR showed that the surfactant modification of RZT has created an amorphous surface with new alkyl groups on the surface. The pHpzc was determined to be approximately 7.9 for RZT and SMZ. The results indicated that the CBZ uptake by SMZ is higher than RZT in all sorption tests (>8 fold). Batch results showed that the sorption capacity of RZT and SMZ in WWTP effluent (0.029 and 0.25 mg/g) is higher than RZT and SMZ (0.018 and 0.14 mg/g) in ultrapure water (1.6–1.8 fold). Batch tests showed that the equilibrium time of CBZ removal in the WWTP matrix (47 h) is much longer than CBZ removal in ultrapure water. The sorption capacity of RZT & SMZ in WWTP effluent (0.03, 0.33 mg/g) is higher than RZT and SMZ (0.02 and 0.17 mg/g) in ultrapure water (1.5–2 fold) using column test. This study has clearly demonstrated that the performance of RZT and SMZ is more efficient for the removal of CBZ from realistic wastewater than ultrapure water. It is evident that the surfactant modification of RZT has enhanced the CBZ removal in both matrices. View Full-Text
Keywords: carbamazepine; matrix effect; sorption; surfactant-modification; zeolitic tuff carbamazepine; matrix effect; sorption; surfactant-modification; zeolitic tuff
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MDPI and ACS Style

Al-Mashaqbeh, O.A.; Alsafadi, D.A.; Alsalhi, L.Z.; Bartelt-Hunt, S.L.; Snow, D.D. Removal of Carbamazepine onto Modified Zeolitic Tuff in Different Water Matrices: Batch and Continuous Flow Experiments. Water 2021, 13, 1084. https://doi.org/10.3390/w13081084

AMA Style

Al-Mashaqbeh OA, Alsafadi DA, Alsalhi LZ, Bartelt-Hunt SL, Snow DD. Removal of Carbamazepine onto Modified Zeolitic Tuff in Different Water Matrices: Batch and Continuous Flow Experiments. Water. 2021; 13(8):1084. https://doi.org/10.3390/w13081084

Chicago/Turabian Style

Al-Mashaqbeh, Othman A.; Alsafadi, Diya A.; Alsalhi, Layal Z.; Bartelt-Hunt, Shannon L.; Snow, Daniel D. 2021. "Removal of Carbamazepine onto Modified Zeolitic Tuff in Different Water Matrices: Batch and Continuous Flow Experiments" Water 13, no. 8: 1084. https://doi.org/10.3390/w13081084

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