Experimental Investigations of a Solar Water Treatment System for Remote Desert Areas of Pakistan
Pakistan’s Water Situation
2. Climatology and Solar Potential
3. Proposed System and Methodology
4. Governing Equations
5. Results and Discussion
Institutional Review Board Statement
Informed Consent Statement
Data Availability Statement
Conflicts of Interest
|cp||specific heat, kJ/kg·K|
|G||solar irradiations, W/m2|
|hc||heat transfer coefficient convection, W/m2·K|
|hfg||enthalpy of evaporation, J/kg|
|hga||heat transfer coefficient convection from glass to air, W/m2·K|
|hw||heat transfer coefficient for water, W/m2·K|
|L||length of basin, m|
|k||thermal conductivity, W/m·K|
|mass of distillate, kg|
|Mdryair||molar mass of dry air|
|Mw,vapour||molar mass of water vapors|
|Pambient||the partial pressure at ambient temperature, mm Hg|
|Pw||the partial pressure at basin water temperature, mm Hg|
|Pwg||the partial pressure at a glass temperature, mm Hg|
|qba||heat loss from basin to air, W/m2|
|qga||heat loss from glass to air, W/m2|
|qr||heat loss through radiations, W/m2|
|qc||heat loss through convection, W/m2|
|qe||heat loss through evaporation, W/m2|
|Ta||temperature of air, °C|
|Tb||temperature of basin, °C|
|Tg||temperature of glass, °C|
|Tw||temperature of feed water, °C|
|Ub||overall heat transfer through a basin, W/m2·K|
|Vwind||wind velocity, km/h|
|absorptivity of water|
|emissivity of glass|
|transmittivity of glass|
|AEDB||Alternative energy development board|
|GDP||Gross domestic product|
|GHI||Global horizontal irradiance, kWh/m2/d|
|IWRM||Integrated water resource management|
|MED||Multi effect desalination|
|NCBI||National Capacity Building Institute|
|PCRWR||Pakistan council of research in water resources|
|ppm||Parts per million|
|SWRO||Seawater reverse osmosis|
|TDS||Total dissolved solids|
|UNDP||United nations development program|
|UNICEF||United nations international children’s emergency fund|
|WHO||World health organization|
|Agenda Items||Suggested Action|
|Conservation and efficiency||Water wastage should be reduced, and water conservation and supply efficiency must be emphasized.|
|Storage capacity||The building of medium and small capacity dams, enhancing the life of existing storage mediums and construction of Reni Canal and Kachi Canal|
|Leveraging technologies||Seawater utilization, water recycling, preparation of an inventory of water resources through remote sensing and precise monitoring of irrigation water distribution.|
|Renewable energy||Small, medium, and large-scale hydropower projects and solar-based seawater desalination systems.|
|Integrated water resource management (IWRM)||IWRM should be adopted on all up-and-down streams to minimize water mining and contamination.|
|Comprehensive regulatory management||Food, water, and energy safety, effective and sustainable water usage, and proper wastewater management.|
|Planning principles||Access to safe drinking water, environmental sustainability, innovation, and feasibility of new projects.|
|Ministry of Planning and Development (2018)|
|Ministry of Environment (2005)|
|Supreme Court of Pakistan (2018) |
|Organization||Sector Type||Focused Areas|
|UNICEF Pakistan (1948)||NGO||Clean water, sanitation, health and nutrition|
|WHO-Pakistan (1948)||NGO||Water, sanitation, and world health|
|Pakistan Council of Research in Water Resources (PCRWR) (1964)||Government||Water quality, water management, rainwater harvesting, and desertification control|
|Centre of Excellence in Water Resources Engineering, UET Lahore, (1976)||Government||Water resource management and hydropower|
|Pakistan Desalination Association (1994)||NGO||Desalination|
|U.S-Pakistan Centers for Advanced Studies in Water, Mehran University Jamshoro (2014)||USAID||Water scarcity, water quality, ecosystem and performance of water utilities|
|Punjab Saaf Pani Company (2014)||Government||Safe drinking water|
|Center for Water informatics and Technology (WIT), LUMS, Lahore (2016)||Private||Hydro-informatics and systems analysis|
|National Capacity Building Institute (NCBI), Collaborated with PCRWR (2017)||Government||Climate extremes, water quality, and water management|
|Plant Type||Location and Design Capacity||Inauguration Date and|
(Multi-Effect Desalination system (MED)
|Defense Housing Authority (DHA), Phase-8, Karachi,|
|Inaugurated in April 2008,|
|DHA Cogen Limited|
|Thermal-based systems (Rs 200 Million for each)||Pasni, Jewani, and|
|Approved in 2008|
Installed but not operational
|Baluchistan Development Authority|
|Thermal-based (Rs. 01 Billion)||Gwadar City|
|Approved in 2008, |
Partially started in 2014 (with 1135 m3/day)
|Baluchistan Development Authority|
|Thermal-based system||Gwadar Port |
|Inaugurated Jan 2018|
|China Overseas Port Holding Company|
|Thermal-based||Gwadar City |
|Construction started in March 2018Under construction||UAE/ Switzerland|
|Thermal-Nuclear based cogeneration plant (MED)||KENUPP|
|Commissioned in 2012, |
Partially started in 2014 (with 1600 m3/day)
|Government of Pakistan|
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|Feedwater volume, liters||17|
|Total freshwater collected (after 6 days), liters||15|
|Rejected brine volume, liters||1.5|
|Water lost in handling, liters||0.5|
|Feedwater salinity, ppm||3000|
|Freshwater salinity, ppm||22|
|Brine water salinity, ppm||33,000|
|Average potable water, liter/day||2.5|
|Time (h)||Tamb (°C)||Tg (°C||Tw (°C)||VWind (km/h)||md,ac (mL/h)|
|Water Quality Parameter||Feed Sample||Distillate Sample||Range|
|Arsenic (μg/L)||NIL||NIL||10 (WHO)|
|Conductivity (μS/cm)||2230||55||2000 (CPCB)|
|TDS (ppm)||1450||22||1000 (WHO)|
|Carbonates (mg/L)||500||12||300 (mg/L)|
|Chlorides (mg/L)||344||07||250 (WHO)|
|Sulphate (mg/L)||211||07||250 (WHO)|
|Hardness (mg/L)||630||20||500 (WHO)|
|Calcium (mg/L)||96||04||100 (KSA)|
|Magnesim (mg/L)||94||02||150 (WHO)|
|Sodium (mg/L)||219||03||200 (WHO)|
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Jamil, M.A.; Yaqoob, H.; Farooq, M.U.; Teoh, Y.H.; Xu, B.B.; Mahkamov, K.; Sultan, M.; Ng, K.C.; Shahzad, M.W. Experimental Investigations of a Solar Water Treatment System for Remote Desert Areas of Pakistan. Water 2021, 13, 1070. https://doi.org/10.3390/w13081070
Jamil MA, Yaqoob H, Farooq MU, Teoh YH, Xu BB, Mahkamov K, Sultan M, Ng KC, Shahzad MW. Experimental Investigations of a Solar Water Treatment System for Remote Desert Areas of Pakistan. Water. 2021; 13(8):1070. https://doi.org/10.3390/w13081070Chicago/Turabian Style
Jamil, Muhammad Ahmad, Haseeb Yaqoob, Muhammad Umar Farooq, Yew Heng Teoh, Ben Bin Xu, Khamid Mahkamov, Muhammad Sultan, Kim Choon Ng, and Muhammad Wakil Shahzad. 2021. "Experimental Investigations of a Solar Water Treatment System for Remote Desert Areas of Pakistan" Water 13, no. 8: 1070. https://doi.org/10.3390/w13081070