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Article

Household Water Filtration Technology to Ensure Safe Drinking Water Supply in the Langat River Basin, Malaysia

Institute for Environment and Development (LESTARI), Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia (UKM), UKM Bangi 43600, Selangor D.E., Malaysia
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Academic Editor: Jinxing Ma
Water 2021, 13(8), 1032; https://doi.org/10.3390/w13081032
Received: 12 March 2021 / Revised: 3 April 2021 / Accepted: 3 April 2021 / Published: 9 April 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advanced Technologies for Sustainable Water Treatment)
Populations in the Langat River Basin, Malaysia, frequently experience water supply disruption due to the shutdown of water treatment plants (WTPs) mainly from the chemical pollution as well as point and non-point sources of pollution. Therefore, this study investigated the aluminium (Al), arsenic (As), cadmium (Cd), chromium (Cr), and lead (Pb) concentrations in the drinking water supply chain at the basin because of its prolonged persistence and toxic characteristics in the aquatic environment. Three replicates of water samples were collected from the river, outlets of WTPs, household tap and filtered water, respectively, in 2015, for analysis by Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry. Higher concentration of these metals was found in household tap water than in the treated water at the WTPs; however, the concentration of these metals at the four stages of the drinking water supply chain conformed to the drinking water quality standard set by the World Health Organization. The Mann-Whitney and Kruskal-Wallis tests also found that metal concentration removal significantly varied among the eight WTPs as well as the five types of household water filtration systems. With regards to the investigated household filtered water, the distilled filtration system was found to be more effective in removing metal concentration because of better management. Therefore, a two-layer water filtration system could be introduced in the Langat River Basin to obtain safe drinking water supply at the household level. View Full-Text
Keywords: chemical pollution; water treatment plant; coagulation water treatment method; reverse osmosis; water quality chemical pollution; water treatment plant; coagulation water treatment method; reverse osmosis; water quality
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MDPI and ACS Style

Ahmed, M.F.; Mokhtar, M.B.; Majid, N.A. Household Water Filtration Technology to Ensure Safe Drinking Water Supply in the Langat River Basin, Malaysia. Water 2021, 13, 1032. https://doi.org/10.3390/w13081032

AMA Style

Ahmed MF, Mokhtar MB, Majid NA. Household Water Filtration Technology to Ensure Safe Drinking Water Supply in the Langat River Basin, Malaysia. Water. 2021; 13(8):1032. https://doi.org/10.3390/w13081032

Chicago/Turabian Style

Ahmed, Minhaz F., Mazlin B. Mokhtar, and Nuriah A. Majid 2021. "Household Water Filtration Technology to Ensure Safe Drinking Water Supply in the Langat River Basin, Malaysia" Water 13, no. 8: 1032. https://doi.org/10.3390/w13081032

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