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Article

FM-GRU: A Time Series Prediction Method for Water Quality Based on seq2seq Framework

1
College of Engineering, Shantou University, Shantou 515000, China
2
Shantou Environmental Protection Monitoring Station, Shantou 515000, China
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
These authors contributed equally to this work.
Academic Editor: George Arhonditsis
Water 2021, 13(8), 1031; https://doi.org/10.3390/w13081031
Received: 1 March 2021 / Revised: 26 March 2021 / Accepted: 6 April 2021 / Published: 9 April 2021
(This article belongs to the Section Aquatic Systems—Quality and Contamination)
Water quality prediction plays a crucial role in both enterprise management and government environmental management. However, due to the variety in water quality data, inconsistent frequency of data acquisition, inconsistency in data organization, and volatility and sparsity of data, predicting water quality accurately and efficiently has become a key problem. This paper presents a recurrent neural network water quality prediction method based on a sequence-to-sequence (seq2seq) framework. The gate recurrent unit (GRU) model is used as an encoder and decoder, and a factorization machine (FM) is integrated into the model to solve the problem of high sparsity and high dimensional feature interaction in the data, which was not addressed by the water quality prediction models in prior research. Moreover, due to the long period and timespan of water quality data, we add a dual attention mechanism to the seq2seq framework to address memory failures in deep learning. We conducted a series of experiments, and the results show that our proposed method is more accurate than several typical water quality prediction methods. View Full-Text
Keywords: water quality prediction; seq2seq; factorization machine; GRU; attention mechanism water quality prediction; seq2seq; factorization machine; GRU; attention mechanism
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MDPI and ACS Style

Xu, J.; Wang, K.; Lin, C.; Xiao, L.; Huang, X.; Zhang, Y. FM-GRU: A Time Series Prediction Method for Water Quality Based on seq2seq Framework. Water 2021, 13, 1031. https://doi.org/10.3390/w13081031

AMA Style

Xu J, Wang K, Lin C, Xiao L, Huang X, Zhang Y. FM-GRU: A Time Series Prediction Method for Water Quality Based on seq2seq Framework. Water. 2021; 13(8):1031. https://doi.org/10.3390/w13081031

Chicago/Turabian Style

Xu, Jianlong; Wang, Kun; Lin, Che; Xiao, Lianghong; Huang, Xingshan; Zhang, Yufeng. 2021. "FM-GRU: A Time Series Prediction Method for Water Quality Based on seq2seq Framework" Water 13, no. 8: 1031. https://doi.org/10.3390/w13081031

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