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Theoretical Estimation of Energy Balance Components in Water Networks for Top-Down Approach

Department of Water Resources Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Kasetsart University, Bangkok 10900, Thailand
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Water 2021, 13(8), 1011; https://doi.org/10.3390/w13081011
Received: 19 February 2021 / Revised: 22 March 2021 / Accepted: 6 April 2021 / Published: 7 April 2021
(This article belongs to the Section Urban Water Management)
The energy balance calculation for pressurized water networks is an important step in assessing the energy efficiency of water distribution systems. However, the calculation generally requires mathematical modelling of the water networks to estimate three important energy components: outgoing energy through water loss (El), friction energy loss (Ef) and energy associated with water loss (EWL). Based on a theoretical energy balance analysis of simplified pipe networks, a simple method is proposed to estimate El, Ef and EWL with minimum data requirements: input energy, water loss (WL) and head loss between the source and the minimum energy point (ΔH). By inclusion of the head loss in water networks into the estimation, the percentages of El and EWL are lower and higher, respectively, than using only the percentage of WL. The percentage of Ef can be a function of the percentage of ΔH. By demonstrating our analysis with the simulation results from the mathematical models of 20 real water networks, the proposed method can be used to effectively estimate El, Ef and EWL as a top-down energy balance approach. View Full-Text
Keywords: energy balance; friction; water loss; pressurized water networks; theoretical estimation energy balance; friction; water loss; pressurized water networks; theoretical estimation
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MDPI and ACS Style

Lipiwattanakarn, S.; Kaewsang, S.; Charuwimolkul, N.; Changklom, J.; Pornprommin, A. Theoretical Estimation of Energy Balance Components in Water Networks for Top-Down Approach. Water 2021, 13, 1011. https://doi.org/10.3390/w13081011

AMA Style

Lipiwattanakarn S, Kaewsang S, Charuwimolkul N, Changklom J, Pornprommin A. Theoretical Estimation of Energy Balance Components in Water Networks for Top-Down Approach. Water. 2021; 13(8):1011. https://doi.org/10.3390/w13081011

Chicago/Turabian Style

Lipiwattanakarn, Surachai, Suparak Kaewsang, Natchapol Charuwimolkul, Jiramate Changklom, and Adichai Pornprommin. 2021. "Theoretical Estimation of Energy Balance Components in Water Networks for Top-Down Approach" Water 13, no. 8: 1011. https://doi.org/10.3390/w13081011

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