Rivers link terrestrial and marine ecosystems, not only transporting numerous substances downstream but also shaping landscapes and fostering aquatic ecosystems through physical interactions and biogeochemical processes with numerous agents. On the other hand, hydraulic facilities, such as reservoirs, hydropower plants, and banks are deployed to utilize water resources for sustaining human society. In the river network systems, rainstorms, as episodic/periodic strong triggers, can induce mass wasting from hillslopes, accelerating nutrient transport, which causes sequential effects. In recent decades, global warming has been accelerating water cycling via thermodynamics, and thus, the frequency and intensity of extreme rainstorms are increasing in intensity. In the West Pacific, typhoons (alias tropical cyclones in Asia) characterized by strong wind and torrential rainfall are evidenced to be getting stronger. The intensified typhoons inevitably stimulate the response of river systems through sediment and nutrient transport and threaten the safe operation of the hydraulic facilities and even coastal communities through storm surge flooding. These strong impacts on river systems should be comprehensively explored. This issue aims to improve the understanding of typhoon effects in river systems. Inter- and cross-disciplinary studies on different watershed scales, linking ecosystem services and watershed management, are particularly addressed.
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License
which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited