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Modeling and Optimization of Biochar Based Adsorbent Derived from Kenaf Using Response Surface Methodology on Adsorption of Cd2+

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Department of Chemical Engineering, Universiti Teknologi PETRONAS, Bandar Seri Iskandar 32610, Perak Darul Ridzuan, Malaysia
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Centre of Urban Resource Sustainability, Universiti Teknologi PETRONAS, Bandar Seri Iskandar 32610, Perak Darul Ridzuan, Malaysia
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Faculty of Applied Science and Engineering, Universitas Pendidikan Mandalika (UNDIKMA), Jl. Pemuda No. 59A, Mataram 83126, Indonesia
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Faculty of Engineering, Universiti Malaysia Sabah, Jln UMS, Kota Kinabalu 88400, Sabah, Malaysia
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School of Chemical & Energy Engineering, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, Skudai 81310, Johor, Malaysia
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Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Universiti Teknologi PETRONAS, Bandar Seri Iskandar 32610, Perak Darul Ridzuan, Malaysia
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Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: Mika Sillanpää and Peyman Gholami
Water 2021, 13(7), 999; https://doi.org/10.3390/w13070999
Received: 7 March 2021 / Revised: 29 March 2021 / Accepted: 29 March 2021 / Published: 5 April 2021
Cadmium is one of the most hazardous metals in the environment, even when present at very low concentrations. This study reports the systematic development of Kenaf fiber biochar as an adsorbent for the removal of cadmium (Cd) (II) ions from water. The adsorbent development was aided by an optimization tool. Activated biochar was prepared using the physicochemical activation method, consisting of pre-impregnation with NaOH and nitrogen (N2) pyrolysis. The influence of the preparation parameters—namely, chemical impregnation (NaOH: KF), pyrolysis temperature, and pyrolysis time on biochar yield, removal rate, and the adsorption capacity of Cd (II) ions—was investigated. From the experimental data, some quadratic correlation models were developed according to the central composite design. All models demonstrated a good fit with the experimental data. The experimental results revealed that the pyrolysis temperature and heating time were the main factors that affected the yield of biochar and had a positive effect on the Cd (II) ions’ removal rate and adsorption capacity. The impregnation ratio also showed a positive effect on the specific surface area of the biochar, removal rate, and adsorption capacity of cadmium, with a negligible effect on the biochar yield. The optimal biochar-based adsorbent was obtained under the following conditions: 550 °C of pyrolysis temperature, 180 min of heating time, and a 1:1 NaOH impregnation ratio. The optimum adsorbent showed 28.60% biochar yield, 69.82% Cd (II) ions removal, 23.48 mg/g of adsorption capacity, and 160.44 m2/g of biochar-specific area. View Full-Text
Keywords: biochar; cadmium; optimization; adsorption; kenaf fiber; CCD-RSM biochar; cadmium; optimization; adsorption; kenaf fiber; CCD-RSM
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MDPI and ACS Style

Saeed, A.A.H.; Harun, N.Y.; Sufian, S.; Bilad, M.R.; Nufida, B.A.; Ismail, N.M.; Zakaria, Z.Y.; Jagaba, A.H.; Ghaleb, A.A.S.; Al-Dhawi, B.N.S. Modeling and Optimization of Biochar Based Adsorbent Derived from Kenaf Using Response Surface Methodology on Adsorption of Cd2+. Water 2021, 13, 999. https://doi.org/10.3390/w13070999

AMA Style

Saeed AAH, Harun NY, Sufian S, Bilad MR, Nufida BA, Ismail NM, Zakaria ZY, Jagaba AH, Ghaleb AAS, Al-Dhawi BNS. Modeling and Optimization of Biochar Based Adsorbent Derived from Kenaf Using Response Surface Methodology on Adsorption of Cd2+. Water. 2021; 13(7):999. https://doi.org/10.3390/w13070999

Chicago/Turabian Style

Saeed, Anwar A.H.; Harun, Noorfidza Y.; Sufian, Suriati; Bilad, Muhammad R.; Nufida, Baiq A.; Ismail, Noor M.; Zakaria, Zaki Y.; Jagaba, Ahmad H.; Ghaleb, Aiban A.S.; Al-Dhawi, Baker N.S. 2021. "Modeling and Optimization of Biochar Based Adsorbent Derived from Kenaf Using Response Surface Methodology on Adsorption of Cd2+" Water 13, no. 7: 999. https://doi.org/10.3390/w13070999

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