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Open AccessArticle

Macroeconomic Accounting of Water Resources: An Input-Output Approach to Linkage Analysis and Impact Indicators Applied to the State of Ceará, Brazil

1
Department of Hydraulic and Environmental Engineering, Federal University of Ceará, Fortaleza 60020-181, Brazil
2
Technical Institute of Research and Economic Strategy of Ceará, Fortaleza 60822-325, Brazil
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Rosa Duarte
Water 2021, 13(6), 869; https://doi.org/10.3390/w13060869
Received: 18 January 2021 / Revised: 16 March 2021 / Accepted: 17 March 2021 / Published: 23 March 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Virtual Water Trade and Water Resources Economics)
This work aims to identify the key sectors of the economic structure, considering their water flows, and estimate each sector’s impact. The goal is to highlight systemic characteristics in the regional economy, establish water use priorities, and assess water security. Based on a regional input-output matrix, we use the following methodologies: the Rasmussen and Hirschman indices for the ‘forward and backward linkages’; simple multipliers of production, job, and income; and the elasticity of water consumption to final water demand. Thirty-two economic sectors and household consumption are analysed. From the elasticity of final water demand, we find that both trade and household consumption put more pressure on water consumption. Furthermore, a joint analysis of the applied methodologies shows that: (a) the trade sector is more relevant for the linkage of water flows, (b) the agriculture sector has the highest direct water consumption, and (c) the public administration sector has the highest intermediate water consumption. View Full-Text
Keywords: input-output matrix; water flows; regional economy input-output matrix; water flows; regional economy
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MDPI and ACS Style

Soares, R.B.; da Silva, S.M.O.; Souza Filho, F.d.A.d.; Paiva, W.d.L. Macroeconomic Accounting of Water Resources: An Input-Output Approach to Linkage Analysis and Impact Indicators Applied to the State of Ceará, Brazil. Water 2021, 13, 869. https://doi.org/10.3390/w13060869

AMA Style

Soares RB, da Silva SMO, Souza Filho FdAd, Paiva WdL. Macroeconomic Accounting of Water Resources: An Input-Output Approach to Linkage Analysis and Impact Indicators Applied to the State of Ceará, Brazil. Water. 2021; 13(6):869. https://doi.org/10.3390/w13060869

Chicago/Turabian Style

Soares, Rogério B.; da Silva, Samiria M.O.; Souza Filho, Francisco d.A.d.; Paiva, Witalo d.L. 2021. "Macroeconomic Accounting of Water Resources: An Input-Output Approach to Linkage Analysis and Impact Indicators Applied to the State of Ceará, Brazil" Water 13, no. 6: 869. https://doi.org/10.3390/w13060869

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