# An Integrated Bottom-Up Approach for Leak Detection in Water Distribution Networks Based on Assessing Parameters of Water Balance Model

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## Abstract

**:**

## 1. Introduction

## 2. Methodology

#### 2.1. Construction of Water Balance Model

#### 2.1.1. Authorized Consumptions

#### 2.1.2. Apparent Losses

#### 2.1.3. Real Losses

#### 2.1.4. Water Balance Model

#### 2.2. Approximate Location Information of Leak

#### 2.3. Parameters Assessment

## 3. Case Study

#### 3.1. Case 1

#### 3.1.1. Leak Detection Bases on Proposed Method

#### 3.1.2. Leak Detection Performance Validation

#### 3.1.3. Approximate Location Information of Leakage

#### 3.2. Case 2

#### 3.2.1. Parameters Assessment

#### 3.2.2. Approximate Location Information of Leak

## 4. Discussion

## Author Contributions

## Funding

## Institutional Review Board Statement

## Informed Consent Statement

## Data Availability Statement

## Conflicts of Interest

## Abbreviations

WDNs | water distribution networks |

Adam | Adaptive moment estimation |

MNF | minimum night flow |

SCADA | supervisory control and data acquisition |

DMAs | district metering areas |

FAVAD | fixed and variable area discharge |

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System input volume | Authorized consumptions | Metered consumption |

Unmetered consumption | ||

Water losses | Apparent losses | |

Real losses |

Detection Method | Recall Rates |
---|---|

WB-Method | 94.59% |

PCA | 45.83% |

Detection Method | ${\mathit{C}}_{\mathbf{EM}}\in [0.2,0.3)$ | ${\mathit{C}}_{\mathbf{EM}}\in [0.3,0.4)$ | ${\mathit{C}}_{\mathbf{EM}}\in [0.4,0.5)$ | ${\mathit{C}}_{\mathbf{EM}}\in [0.5,0.6)$ |
---|---|---|---|---|

WB-Method | 89.19% | 94.73% | 98.95% | 100% |

PCA | 23.53% | 33.33% | 36.84% | 48.15% |

Time Window Length | 4 | 6 | 8 |
---|---|---|---|

DMA1 | 78.4% | 83.8% | 86.5% |

DMA2 | 85.7% | 92.9% | 96.4% |

DMA3 | 94.6% | 97.3% | 97.3% |

DMA4 | 94.1% | 97.1% | 100% |

DMA5 | 96.4% | 96.4% | 100% |

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## Share and Cite

**MDPI and ACS Style**

Yu, J.; Zhang, L.; Chen, J.; Xiao, Y.; Hou, D.; Huang, P.; Zhang, G.; Zhang, H.
An Integrated Bottom-Up Approach for Leak Detection in Water Distribution Networks Based on Assessing Parameters of Water Balance Model. *Water* **2021**, *13*, 867.
https://doi.org/10.3390/w13060867

**AMA Style**

Yu J, Zhang L, Chen J, Xiao Y, Hou D, Huang P, Zhang G, Zhang H.
An Integrated Bottom-Up Approach for Leak Detection in Water Distribution Networks Based on Assessing Parameters of Water Balance Model. *Water*. 2021; 13(6):867.
https://doi.org/10.3390/w13060867

**Chicago/Turabian Style**

Yu, Jie, Li Zhang, Jinyu Chen, Yao Xiao, Dibo Hou, Pingjie Huang, Guangxin Zhang, and Hongjian Zhang.
2021. "An Integrated Bottom-Up Approach for Leak Detection in Water Distribution Networks Based on Assessing Parameters of Water Balance Model" *Water* 13, no. 6: 867.
https://doi.org/10.3390/w13060867