The water footprint (WF) vividly links water resources with virtual water of food, providing a novel perspective on food demand and water resources management. This study estimates the per capita WF of food consumption for six provinces in North China. Then, the study applies the logarithmic mean Divisia index method to decompose the driving forces of their WF changes. Results show that the per capita WF of food consumption in Beijing, Tianjin, and Inner Mongolia increases significantly in 2005–2017, whereas that in the other three provinces in North China varies slightly. All provinces have shown the same trend of food structure changes: the grain decreased, whereas the meat increased. In general, the urban effect was positive, and the rural effect was negative for all regions. The urban effects in Beijing and Tianjin played a leading role, whereas the rural effects in the other four provinces played a leading role from 2005–2009. However, the urban effects in all provinces played a leading role in 2010–2017. The WF efficiency increased in each province, and the effect in urban areas is stronger due to the higher water use efficiency. For most provinces, the consumption structure was positive because the diet shifted toward more meat consumption. The food consumption per capita effect was the major driving force in Beijing and Tianjin due to the increased consumption level, whereas the population proportion effect exerted a weak effect. To alleviate the pressure on water resources, further improving water use efficiency in food production and changing the planting structure should be emphasized for all regions in North China.
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