Next Article in Journal
Future Flood Hazard Assessment for the City of Pamplona (Spain) Using an Ensemble of Climate Change Projections
Previous Article in Journal
Research on Descaling Characteristics and Simulation Calculation of a Coaxial High-Frequency Electronic Descaling Device
Communication

Estrogen Disrupting Pesticides in Nebraska Groundwater: Trends between Pesticide-contaminated Water and Estrogen-related Cancers in An Ecological Observational Study

1
Department of Environmental Health, Occupational Health, and Toxicology, College of Public Health, University of Nebraska Medical Center, Omaha, NE 68198-4395, USA
2
Department of Epidemiology, College of Public Health, University of Nebraska Medical Center, Omaha, NE 68198-4395, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Tamas Komives
Water 2021, 13(6), 790; https://doi.org/10.3390/w13060790
Received: 15 January 2021 / Revised: 3 March 2021 / Accepted: 11 March 2021 / Published: 14 March 2021
(This article belongs to the Section Water, Agriculture and Aquaculture)
Estrogen disrupting pesticides (EDP) are pesticides that modify estrogen activities in estrogen-producing vertebrates. A substantial amount of these pesticides has been detected in human tissues, and they function directly to disrupt estrogen synthesis or effector cells. This study examines EDP’s ecological distribution across Nebraska counties and its association with estrogen-related cancers (ERC). To determine the ecological distribution of selected EDP, county-level choropleth maps were created. Moreover, EDP was tested in separate linear models with different ERC to determine the association between ERC and EDP across Nebraska counties. Exposure data for this county-level study was obtained from the quality assessed agrichemical contaminant Nebraska groundwater database between 1 January 1974 and 31 December 2012. Acetochlor, atrazine, and its metabolites, deethylatrazine (DEA), and de-isopropyl atrazine (DIA) were the most frequently detected EDP in Nebraska groundwater. Moreover, Nebraska county-level potential confounder for ERC such as physically unhealthy days, % adult smoking, % obese adult, % uninsured, and % binge drinking were obtained from County Health Rankings 2010. ERC, which is the outcome variable (breast cancer, uterine cancer, and prostate cancer), were obtained from the Nebraska State profile of the National Cancer Institute. This was expressed as county-level age-standardized incidence cancer rates between 1 January 2013 and 31 December 2017. Data characteristics were determined using percentages, mean, median, 25th and 75th percentile, minimum and maximum values. The relationship between county-level cancer rates and % wells positive for pesticides after adjusting for the county level potential confounders were analyzed in a linear regression model. Water supply wells positive for atrazine and DEA were observed to cluster in the South and South East counties of Nebraska. Furthermore, breast cancer and prostate cancer incidence rates were higher in the southeast of Nebraska with more atrazine and DEA. However, breast cancer and prostate cancer were not significantly associated in a linear regression model with any of the observed EDP. In contrast, uterine cancer was statistically associated with % water supply wells positive for acetochlor (β = 4.01, p = 0.04). While consistent associations were not observed between ERC and EDP from the GIS and the linear regression model, this study’s results can drive future conversation concerning the potential estrogenic effects of acetochlor, atrazine, and its metabolites on the incidence of breast, uterine and prostate cancer in the State of Nebraska. View Full-Text
Keywords: groundwater; atrazine; atrazine metabolites; acetochlor; breast cancer; uterine cancer; prostate cancer; contamination; Nebraska counties groundwater; atrazine; atrazine metabolites; acetochlor; breast cancer; uterine cancer; prostate cancer; contamination; Nebraska counties
Show Figures

Figure 1

MDPI and ACS Style

New-Aaron, M.; Naveed, Z.; Rogan, E.G. Estrogen Disrupting Pesticides in Nebraska Groundwater: Trends between Pesticide-contaminated Water and Estrogen-related Cancers in An Ecological Observational Study. Water 2021, 13, 790. https://doi.org/10.3390/w13060790

AMA Style

New-Aaron M, Naveed Z, Rogan EG. Estrogen Disrupting Pesticides in Nebraska Groundwater: Trends between Pesticide-contaminated Water and Estrogen-related Cancers in An Ecological Observational Study. Water. 2021; 13(6):790. https://doi.org/10.3390/w13060790

Chicago/Turabian Style

New-Aaron, Moses; Naveed, Zaeema; Rogan, Eleanor G. 2021. "Estrogen Disrupting Pesticides in Nebraska Groundwater: Trends between Pesticide-contaminated Water and Estrogen-related Cancers in An Ecological Observational Study" Water 13, no. 6: 790. https://doi.org/10.3390/w13060790

Find Other Styles
Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Article Access Map by Country/Region

1
Search more from Scilit
 
Search
Back to TopTop