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Open AccessArticle

Reservoir Management by Reducing Evaporation Using Floating Photovoltaic System: A Case Study of Lake Nasser, Egypt

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Department of Water and Water Structures Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Zagazig University, Zagazig 44519, Egypt
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Civil Engineering Department, College of Engineering, Shaqra University, Dawadmi 11911, Saudi Arabia
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Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Brunel University London, Kingston Lane, Uxbridge UB8 3PH, UK
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Department of Environmental Engineering, Faculty of Civil Engineering, Technical University of Kosice, 040 01 Košice, Slovakia
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Department of Building Facilities, Faculty of Civil Engineering, Technical University of Kosice, 040 01 Košice, Slovakia
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Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Fi-John Chang
Water 2021, 13(6), 769; https://doi.org/10.3390/w13060769
Received: 12 February 2021 / Revised: 8 March 2021 / Accepted: 9 March 2021 / Published: 11 March 2021
(This article belongs to the Section Hydraulics and Hydrodynamics)
The shortage of water is a major obstruction to the social and economic development of many countries, including Egypt. Therefore, there is an urgent need to properly manage water resources to achieve optimum water use. One way of saving available water resources is to reduce evaporation that leads to the loss of a large amount of water from reservoirs and open lakes. This paper aims to use a floating photovoltaic system (FPVS) to cover a lake’s water surface to reduce evaporation and also for energy production. This methodology was applied to Lake Nasser as one of the largest lakes in the world where much evaporation happens due to its large area, arid environments, and the shallow depths of some parts of the lake. The estimated evaporation from the lake was 12.0 × 109 m3/year. The results show that covering 25%, 50%, 75%, and 100% of the lake can save about 2.1, 4.2, 6.3, 7.0, and 8.4 × 109 m3/year and produce energy of 2.85 × 109, 5.67 × 109, 8.54 × 109, and 11.38 × 109 MWh/year, respectively. Covering areas of shallow water depth was more efficient and economical. The results show that covering 15% of the lake’s area (depths from 0.0 to 3.0 m) can save 2.66 × 109 m3/year and produce 1.7 MWh/year. Covering 25% of the lake’s area (depths from 0.0 to 7.0) can save 3.5 × 109 m3/year and produce 2.854 MWh/year. Using an FPVS to cover parts of Lake Nasser could help manage water resources and energy production for Egypt to overcome the likely shortage of water resources due to population growth. This system could be applied in different locations of the world which could help in increasing water resources and energy production, especially in arid and semi-arid regions. View Full-Text
Keywords: reservoirs management; evaporation losses; floating photovoltaic system (FPVS); Lake Nasser reservoirs management; evaporation losses; floating photovoltaic system (FPVS); Lake Nasser
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MDPI and ACS Style

Abd-Elhamid, H.F.; Ahmed, A.; Zeleňáková, M.; Vranayová, Z.; Fathy, I. Reservoir Management by Reducing Evaporation Using Floating Photovoltaic System: A Case Study of Lake Nasser, Egypt. Water 2021, 13, 769. https://doi.org/10.3390/w13060769

AMA Style

Abd-Elhamid HF, Ahmed A, Zeleňáková M, Vranayová Z, Fathy I. Reservoir Management by Reducing Evaporation Using Floating Photovoltaic System: A Case Study of Lake Nasser, Egypt. Water. 2021; 13(6):769. https://doi.org/10.3390/w13060769

Chicago/Turabian Style

Abd-Elhamid, Hany F.; Ahmed, Ashraf; Zeleňáková, Martina; Vranayová, Zuzana; Fathy, Ismail. 2021. "Reservoir Management by Reducing Evaporation Using Floating Photovoltaic System: A Case Study of Lake Nasser, Egypt" Water 13, no. 6: 769. https://doi.org/10.3390/w13060769

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