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Article

Assessing the Ecotoxicity of Copper and Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons: Comparison of Effects on Paracentrotus lividus and Botryllus schlosseri, as Alternative Bioassay Methods

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Department of Marine Biotechnology, Stazione Zoologica Anton Dohrn, Villa Dohrn, Punta San Pietro, 80077 Naples, Italy
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Department of Life and Environmental Sciences, Polytechnic University of Marche, Via Brecce Bianche, 60131 Ancona, Italy
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Department of Marine Biotechnology, Stazione Zoologica Anton Dohrn, Villa Comunale, 80121 Naples, Italy
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Department of Biology, University of Naples Federico II, Complesso Universitario di Monte Sant’Angelo, Via Cinthia 21, 80126 Naples, Italy
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Department of Life Science (DSV), University of Trieste, Via Giorgieri 10, 34127 Trieste, Italy
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Judith S. Weis
Water 2021, 13(5), 711; https://doi.org/10.3390/w13050711
Received: 8 February 2021 / Revised: 25 February 2021 / Accepted: 27 February 2021 / Published: 5 March 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Aquatic Ecotoxicity Assessment)
Adult sea urchins and their embryos are ideal targets to investigate the medium- and long-term effects of various toxic agents, such as organic and inorganic pollutants, to forecast and mitigate their environmental effects. Similarly, small colonial tunicates such as Botryllid ascidians may reveal acute toxicity processes and permit quick responses for the management of contaminants impacting coastal waters, to preserve the functional integrity of marine ecosystems. This investigation compares the functional responses of two model invertebrates, the sea urchin Paracentrotus lividus and the sea squirt Botryllus schlosseri, to chronic and acute exposures to organic and inorganic toxic agents. Such heavy metals as copper produce both acute and chronic effects on marine biota, while polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) mainly produce chronic effects at the concentrations ordinarily measured in marine coastal waters. Both models were tested over a range of concentrations of copper and PAHs. Copper triggered a clear effect in both species, producing a delay in the embryo development of P. lividus and a rapid death of sea squirts. B. schlosseri was less sensitive to PAHs than P. lividus. The results on both species may synergistically contribute to assess the toxicity of organic and inorganic compounds at various concentrations and different physiologic levels. View Full-Text
Keywords: model organism; rapid assessment; heavy metals; PAH; allochemicals; sea urchin; sea squirt; seawater model organism; rapid assessment; heavy metals; PAH; allochemicals; sea urchin; sea squirt; seawater
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MDPI and ACS Style

Gregorin, C.; Albarano, L.; Somma, E.; Costantini, M.; Zupo, V. Assessing the Ecotoxicity of Copper and Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons: Comparison of Effects on Paracentrotus lividus and Botryllus schlosseri, as Alternative Bioassay Methods. Water 2021, 13, 711. https://doi.org/10.3390/w13050711

AMA Style

Gregorin C, Albarano L, Somma E, Costantini M, Zupo V. Assessing the Ecotoxicity of Copper and Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons: Comparison of Effects on Paracentrotus lividus and Botryllus schlosseri, as Alternative Bioassay Methods. Water. 2021; 13(5):711. https://doi.org/10.3390/w13050711

Chicago/Turabian Style

Gregorin, Chiara, Luisa Albarano, Emanuele Somma, Maria Costantini, and Valerio Zupo. 2021. "Assessing the Ecotoxicity of Copper and Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons: Comparison of Effects on Paracentrotus lividus and Botryllus schlosseri, as Alternative Bioassay Methods" Water 13, no. 5: 711. https://doi.org/10.3390/w13050711

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