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Review

Electrocoagulation as a Promising Defluoridation Technology from Water: A Review of State of the Art of Removal Mechanisms and Performance Trends

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Student Research Committee, Qazvin University of Medical Sciences, Qazvin 34197-59811, Iran
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Department of Environmental Health Engineering, School of Health, Qazvin University of Medical Sciences, Qazvin 34197-59811, Iran
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Petroleum Engineering Department, Australian College of Kuwait, West Mishref Safat-13015, Kuwait
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Department of Chemical Engineering, University of Western Macedonia, GR-50132 Kozani, Greece
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Environmental Engineering Department, Civil Engineering Faculty, İstanbul Technical University, Ayazağa Campus, Maslak 34469, İstanbul, Turkey
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Civil and Environmental Engineering Department, Amirkabir University of Technology (Tehran Polytechnic), Hafez Ave., Tehran 15875-4413, Iran
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Department of Chemical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering Technology, Al-Balqa Applied University, Amman 19117, Jordan
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Environmental Sciences Department, Faculty of Science, Alexandria University, Alexandria 21511, Egypt
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Green Technology Group, Faculty of Science, Alexandria University, Alexandria 21511, Egypt
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Laboratorio de Electroquímica Medio Ambiental, LEQMA, Departamento de Química de los Materiales, Facultad de Química y Biología, Universidad de Santiago de Chile, USACH, Casilla 40, Correo 33, Santiago 9170022, Chile
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Departamento de Ingeniería Química, División de Ciencias Naturales y Exactas, Universidad de Guanajuato, Noria Alta S/N, Guanajuato 36050, Guanajuato, Mexico
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School of Engineering, Computer Science, and Mathematics, West Texas A&M University, Box 60767, Canyon, TX 79016, USA
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Social Determinants of Health Research Center, Research Institute for Prevention of Non-Communicable Diseases, Qazvin University of Medical Sciences, Qazvin 34199-15315, Iran
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Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Co-first author, Milad Mousazadeh, Işık Kabdaşlı and Elnaz Karamati Niaragh contributed equally to this work.
Academic Editor: Sergi Garcia-Segura
Water 2021, 13(5), 656; https://doi.org/10.3390/w13050656
Received: 22 January 2021 / Revised: 16 February 2021 / Accepted: 24 February 2021 / Published: 28 February 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Application of Electrochemistry in Wastewater Treatment)
Fluoride ions present in drinking water are beneficial to human health when at proper concentration levels (0.5–1.5 mg L−1), but an excess intake of fluoride (>1.5 mg L−1) may pose several health problems. In this context, reducing high fluoride concentrations in water is a major worldwide challenge. The World Health Organization has recommended setting a permissible limit of 1.5 mg L−1. The application of electrocoagulation (EC) processes has received widespread and increasing attention as a promising treatment technology and a competitive treatment for fluoride control. EC technology has been favourably applied due to its economic effectiveness, environmental versatility, amenability of automation, and low sludge production. This review provides more detailed information on fluoride removal from water by the EC process, including operating parameters, removal mechanisms, energy consumption, and operating costs. Additionally, it also focuses attention on future trends related to improve defluoridation efficiency. View Full-Text
Keywords: electrocoagulation; groundwater treatment; water treatment; fluoride removal electrocoagulation; groundwater treatment; water treatment; fluoride removal
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MDPI and ACS Style

Mousazadeh, M.; Alizadeh, S.M.; Frontistis, Z.; Kabdaşlı, I.; Karamati Niaragh, E.; Al Qodah, Z.; Naghdali, Z.; Mahmoud, A.E.D.; Sandoval, M.A.; Butler, E.; Emamjomeh, M.M. Electrocoagulation as a Promising Defluoridation Technology from Water: A Review of State of the Art of Removal Mechanisms and Performance Trends. Water 2021, 13, 656. https://doi.org/10.3390/w13050656

AMA Style

Mousazadeh M, Alizadeh SM, Frontistis Z, Kabdaşlı I, Karamati Niaragh E, Al Qodah Z, Naghdali Z, Mahmoud AED, Sandoval MA, Butler E, Emamjomeh MM. Electrocoagulation as a Promising Defluoridation Technology from Water: A Review of State of the Art of Removal Mechanisms and Performance Trends. Water. 2021; 13(5):656. https://doi.org/10.3390/w13050656

Chicago/Turabian Style

Mousazadeh, Milad, S. M. Alizadeh, Zacharias Frontistis, Işık Kabdaşlı, Elnaz Karamati Niaragh, Zakaria Al Qodah, Zohreh Naghdali, Alaa El Din Mahmoud, Miguel A. Sandoval, Erick Butler, and Mohammad Mahdi Emamjomeh. 2021. "Electrocoagulation as a Promising Defluoridation Technology from Water: A Review of State of the Art of Removal Mechanisms and Performance Trends" Water 13, no. 5: 656. https://doi.org/10.3390/w13050656

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