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Article

Water and Food Nexus: Role of Socio-Economic Status on Water–Food Nexus in an Urban Agglomeration Hyderabad, India Using Consumption Water Footprint

Department of Civil Engineering, Water Resources Division, Indian Institute of Technology Hyderabad, Sangareddy, Kandi Village, Telangana 502285, India
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Academic Editors: Maite M. Aldaya, Diego Sesma-Martín and Joep F. Schyns
Water 2021, 13(5), 637; https://doi.org/10.3390/w13050637
Received: 24 December 2020 / Revised: 20 February 2021 / Accepted: 23 February 2021 / Published: 27 February 2021
Cities are complex and evolving systems with various factors playing key roles, e.g., population increase, the migration of population, the availability of resources, and the flexibility of policies. Consumers’ socioeconomic status is also an important aspect that needs to be studied in the context of a self-reliant urban city in its resource consumption. In this regard, the association between water–food and socio-economic attributes was analyzed based on the consumer-centric approach for the Hyderabad Metro Development Authority (HMDA) region, India. In this study, the embedded water content in food consumption was estimated and analyzed for nine food groups and twelve economic classes of the HMDA region. The middle economic classes were found to correspond to ~80% of embedded water content in the HMDA region, followed by the upper and lower economic classes. Except for cereals, per capita, the water consumption of all food groups increased with the spending power of the economic class. The green, blue, and grey consumption water footprints (WFs) suggested that much of the water that is being consumed in the HMDA region is precipitation-driven, followed by surface and groundwater resources. Limited water resources, water resource variability, climate change consequences including future climate projections, uncertainty in data, WF estimates, and region’s future growth imply a detailed study in drafting policies to become a self-reliant region. View Full-Text
Keywords: embedded water content; water footprint; water–food nexus; socio-economic status; food consumption; virtual water; spending capacity embedded water content; water footprint; water–food nexus; socio-economic status; food consumption; virtual water; spending capacity
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MDPI and ACS Style

D., K.R.; Regonda, S.K.; Dornadula, C. Water and Food Nexus: Role of Socio-Economic Status on Water–Food Nexus in an Urban Agglomeration Hyderabad, India Using Consumption Water Footprint. Water 2021, 13, 637. https://doi.org/10.3390/w13050637

AMA Style

D. KR, Regonda SK, Dornadula C. Water and Food Nexus: Role of Socio-Economic Status on Water–Food Nexus in an Urban Agglomeration Hyderabad, India Using Consumption Water Footprint. Water. 2021; 13(5):637. https://doi.org/10.3390/w13050637

Chicago/Turabian Style

D., Koteswara Rao., Satish K. Regonda, and Chandrasekharam Dornadula. 2021. "Water and Food Nexus: Role of Socio-Economic Status on Water–Food Nexus in an Urban Agglomeration Hyderabad, India Using Consumption Water Footprint" Water 13, no. 5: 637. https://doi.org/10.3390/w13050637

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