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Article

Role of Ion Chemistry and Hydro-Geochemical Processes in Aquifer Salinization—A Case Study from a Semi-Arid Region of Haryana, India

1
Groundwater Hydrology Division, National Institute of Hydrology, Roorkee 247667, India
2
Environmental Hydrology Division, National Institute of Hydrology, Roorkee 247667, India
3
Department of Hydrology, Indian Institute of Technology, Roorkee 247667, India
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Department of Water Resources and Development Management, Indian Institute of Technology, Roorkee 247667, India
5
IIHR—Hydroscience & Engineering, the University of Iowa, Iowa City, IA 52242, USA
6
Sehgal Foundation, Gurgaon 122003, India
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Helder I. Chaminé
Water 2021, 13(5), 617; https://doi.org/10.3390/w13050617
Received: 17 December 2020 / Revised: 1 February 2021 / Accepted: 3 February 2021 / Published: 26 February 2021
In the present study, a total of sixty groundwater samples, twenty each for the pre-monsoon, monsoon and post monsoon seasons of 2018, were collected from selected locations in the Mewat district of Haryana, India. Electrical conductivity (EC) was measured at the site and total dissolved solids (TDS) were estimated. Samples were analysed for anions (chloride, sulphate, and bicarbonate) and cations (calcium, potassium, magnesium, and sodium). Multiple regression analysis was performed to analyse the data and report the dominant ions. Piper trilinear diagram and Gibbs plots were used to find out the water type and the factors controlling the chemistry of the groundwater, respectively. The saturation index of CaCO3, CaSO4 and NaCl was determined, using the PHREEQC MODEL. Sodium and calcium among cations, and chloride among the anions, had the highest degree of affinity and strong significance for all three seasons. The calcium–chloride water type dominated for all three seasons and Gibbs plot depicted that most of the Na+/Na+ + Ca2+ and Cl/Cl + HCO3 ratios show the weathering of rocks to form minerals as the major reason behind the ionic chemistry of the groundwater. The highest level of dissolution is encountered in the case of NaCl, followed by CaSO4, whereas CaCO3 depicts precipitation. The geochemical aspects of weathering, evaporation and ion exchange are the major processes responsible for high salinity, and anthropogenic activities are leading to its expansion. The findings from this study will be useful in management and remediation of groundwater salinity of the region. View Full-Text
Keywords: salinity; ions; semi-arid region; Mewat; Haryana salinity; ions; semi-arid region; Mewat; Haryana
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MDPI and ACS Style

Krishan, G.; Sejwal, P.; Bhagwat, A.; Prasad, G.; Yadav, B.K.; Kumar, C.P.; Kansal, M.L.; Singh, S.; Sudarsan, N.; Bradley, A.; Sharma, L.M.; Muste, M. Role of Ion Chemistry and Hydro-Geochemical Processes in Aquifer Salinization—A Case Study from a Semi-Arid Region of Haryana, India. Water 2021, 13, 617. https://doi.org/10.3390/w13050617

AMA Style

Krishan G, Sejwal P, Bhagwat A, Prasad G, Yadav BK, Kumar CP, Kansal ML, Singh S, Sudarsan N, Bradley A, Sharma LM, Muste M. Role of Ion Chemistry and Hydro-Geochemical Processes in Aquifer Salinization—A Case Study from a Semi-Arid Region of Haryana, India. Water. 2021; 13(5):617. https://doi.org/10.3390/w13050617

Chicago/Turabian Style

Krishan, Gopal, Priyanka Sejwal, Anjali Bhagwat, Gokul Prasad, Brijesh Kumar Yadav, Chander Prakash Kumar, Mitthan Lal Kansal, Surjeet Singh, Natarajan Sudarsan, Allen Bradley, Lalit Mohan Sharma, and Marian Muste. 2021. "Role of Ion Chemistry and Hydro-Geochemical Processes in Aquifer Salinization—A Case Study from a Semi-Arid Region of Haryana, India" Water 13, no. 5: 617. https://doi.org/10.3390/w13050617

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