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Article

Regional Hydrogeochemical Evolution of Groundwater in the Ring of Cenotes, Yucatán (Mexico): An Inverse Modelling Approach

1
Instituto de Ciencias del Mar y Limnología Estación El Carmen, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Cd. del Carmen C.P. 24157, Campeche, Mexico
2
Laboratorio de Ingeniería y Procesos Costeros, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Sisal C.P. 97355, Yucatán, Mexico
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Facultad de Ingeniería, Universidad Autónoma de Yucatán, Mérida C.P. 97203, Yucatan, Mexico
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Centro de Investigación y de Estudios Avanzados del Instituto Politécnico Nacional, Mérida C.P. 97205, Yucatán, Mexico
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Unidad Académica de Ecología y Biodiversidad Acuática, Instituto de Ciencias del Mar y Limnología, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Ciudad Universitaria, Ciudad de México C.P. 04510, Mexico
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Frédéric Huneau
Water 2021, 13(5), 614; https://doi.org/10.3390/w13050614
Received: 8 January 2021 / Revised: 22 February 2021 / Accepted: 22 February 2021 / Published: 26 February 2021
The Ring of Cenotes (RC) extends along the edge of the Chicxulub crater, in the limestone platform of the Yucatan Peninsula (YP), where groundwater shows two preferential flow paths toward the coast near Celestun and Dzilam Bravo towns. The objectives of this study were to describe the regional hydrogeochemical evolution of the groundwater in the RC, and its association with the dissolution/precipitation of the minerals present along its pathway to the ocean. These objectives results were obtained by: (a) characterizing groundwater hydrogeochemistry; (b) calculating calcite, dolomite, and gypsum saturation indexes in the study area; and (c) developing a hydrogeochemical model using PHREEQC (U. S. Geological Survey) inverse modelling approach. The model predictions confirmed that there are two evolution pathways of the groundwater consistent with the preferential flow paths suggested in a previous regionalization of the RC. On the western path, where groundwater flows towards Celestun, marine intrusion influences the hydrogeochemical processes and represents a risk for the freshwater. On the eastern path, where groundwater flows toward Dzilam Bravo, rainfall has an important effect on the hydrogeochemical processes, evidenced by a higher concentration in sulfates during droughts than during rainy periods. Then, monitoring of marine intrusion and phases dissolution in the RC is highly recommended. View Full-Text
Keywords: sinkholes; hydrogeochemistry; inverse modelling; rainfall; dissolution; PHREEQC sinkholes; hydrogeochemistry; inverse modelling; rainfall; dissolution; PHREEQC
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MDPI and ACS Style

Pérez-Ceballos, R.; Canul-Macario, C.; Pacheco-Castro, R.; Pacheco-Ávila, J.; Euán-Ávila, J.; Merino-Ibarra, M. Regional Hydrogeochemical Evolution of Groundwater in the Ring of Cenotes, Yucatán (Mexico): An Inverse Modelling Approach. Water 2021, 13, 614. https://doi.org/10.3390/w13050614

AMA Style

Pérez-Ceballos R, Canul-Macario C, Pacheco-Castro R, Pacheco-Ávila J, Euán-Ávila J, Merino-Ibarra M. Regional Hydrogeochemical Evolution of Groundwater in the Ring of Cenotes, Yucatán (Mexico): An Inverse Modelling Approach. Water. 2021; 13(5):614. https://doi.org/10.3390/w13050614

Chicago/Turabian Style

Pérez-Ceballos, Rosela, Cesar Canul-Macario, Roger Pacheco-Castro, Julia Pacheco-Ávila, Jorge Euán-Ávila, and Martín Merino-Ibarra. 2021. "Regional Hydrogeochemical Evolution of Groundwater in the Ring of Cenotes, Yucatán (Mexico): An Inverse Modelling Approach" Water 13, no. 5: 614. https://doi.org/10.3390/w13050614

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