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Open AccessArticle

Case Study for the Predictive Environmental Risk Assessment of Hexamethylenetetramine Release to the Yodo River during a Massive Tsunami Attack

1
Graduate School of Engineering, Osaka University, 2-1 Yamadaoka, Suita, Osaka 565-0871, Japan
2
Disaster Prevention Research Institute, Kyoto University, Gokasho, Uji, Kyoto 611-0011, Japan
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Olga Petrucci
Water 2021, 13(4), 549; https://doi.org/10.3390/w13040549
Received: 29 January 2021 / Revised: 12 February 2021 / Accepted: 15 February 2021 / Published: 21 February 2021
(This article belongs to the Section Urban Water Management)
Untreated hexamethylenetetramine (HMT) was discharged into the Tone River in the central area of Japan, and the risk management plan in the watershed area has been strengthened because HMT is the precursor of formaldehyde (FA) regulated by Japanese water supply law. The release of HMT could occur not only in steady but also in unsteady environmental conditions. In this context, no quantitative environmental risk assessments have dealt with the combined events of FA precursor outflow and natural disasters, such as a massive tsunami attack. In this study, we estimated the time course changes of HMT concentrations at the near water treatment plant (WTP) intakes due to tsunami run-up in the river after HMT discharge from facilities along the river during a massive tsunami attack, then potential ecological and health impacts were estimated. This method has a strong analytical ability to reveal the relationship between wave source and inland water run-up in consideration of 3D density flow. For ecological risk, the half maximal effective concentration (EC50) was employed. We found that HMT concentration would not reach a level of concern even after the accident. For potential health risk in terms of the possible maximum inlet concentration of HMT at the WTP, the FA formation amount was 5.3 × 10−2 mg/L, which was below the water quality standard. View Full-Text
Keywords: Natech (Natural hazard-triggered technological accidents); tsunami; water treatment systems; disinfection by-product; risk assessment Natech (Natural hazard-triggered technological accidents); tsunami; water treatment systems; disinfection by-product; risk assessment
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MDPI and ACS Style

Hamamoto, S.; Ito, L.; Yoneyama, N.; Tokai, A. Case Study for the Predictive Environmental Risk Assessment of Hexamethylenetetramine Release to the Yodo River during a Massive Tsunami Attack. Water 2021, 13, 549. https://doi.org/10.3390/w13040549

AMA Style

Hamamoto S, Ito L, Yoneyama N, Tokai A. Case Study for the Predictive Environmental Risk Assessment of Hexamethylenetetramine Release to the Yodo River during a Massive Tsunami Attack. Water. 2021; 13(4):549. https://doi.org/10.3390/w13040549

Chicago/Turabian Style

Hamamoto, Shogo; Ito, Lisa; Yoneyama, Nozomu; Tokai, Akihiro. 2021. "Case Study for the Predictive Environmental Risk Assessment of Hexamethylenetetramine Release to the Yodo River during a Massive Tsunami Attack" Water 13, no. 4: 549. https://doi.org/10.3390/w13040549

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