Next Article in Journal
Assessing the Potential of Agricultural Reservoirs as the Source of Environmental Flow
Previous Article in Journal
Water Consumption Range Prediction in Huelva’s Households Using Classification and Regression Trees
Previous Article in Special Issue
Simulation Study on the Different Policies of Jiangsu Province for a Dynamic Balance of Water Resources under the Water–Energy–Food Nexus
Open AccessArticle

A System Dynamics Model of the Community-Based Rural Drinking Water Supply Program (PAMSIMAS) in Indonesia

1
Department of Water Management, Faculty of Civil Engineering and Geosciences, Delft University of Technology, 2628 CN Delft, The Netherlands
2
Department of Health Behavior, Faculty of Medicine, Public Health and Nursing, Universitas Gadjah Mada, Environment, and Social Medicine, Yogyakarta 55281, Indonesia
3
Department of Engineering and Policy Analysis, Faculty of Technology, Policy and Management, Delft University of Technology, 2628 BX Delft, The Netherlands
4
Department of Environmental Engineering, Sekolah Tinggi Teknologi Sapta Taruna, Jakarta 13340, Indonesia
5
The Community-Based Rural Water Supply and Sanitation Program (PAMSIMAS), Magelang Regency, Mungkid 56511, Indonesia
6
Department of Environmental Engineering, Diponegoro University, Semarang 50275, Indonesia
7
Department of Land and Water Management, IHE Delft Institute for Water Education, 2611 AX Delft, The Netherlands
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Oz Sahin
Water 2021, 13(4), 507; https://doi.org/10.3390/w13040507
Received: 15 January 2021 / Revised: 9 February 2021 / Accepted: 12 February 2021 / Published: 15 February 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue System Dynamics Modelling for Water–Energy–Climate Nexus)
The sustainability of the water supply program in developing countries is influenced by many inter-linked and dynamic factors, suggesting the need to analyse the system behaviour of the water supply program. However, no study analyses factors influencing the sustainability of rural drinking water supply programs holistically, and this study aims to fill that gap. This study utilized a system dynamics approach based on a case study of a community-based rural drinking water supply program (PAMSIMAS in Bahasa) in Magelang Regency, Indonesia. Five sustainability aspects were considered in the model development and simulation: financial, institutional, environmental, technical, and social aspects. Eight scenario analyses related to those five aspects were conducted. The causal loop diagrams suggest that the overall loop in the system is reinforcing, meaning that the improvement in one aspect will improve the overall condition of the system and deterioration in one aspect will reduce the overall condition of the system. Scenario analysis shows that external fund is critical to support the program financially, especially at the beginning of the project when the piped system is being built and water revenue is still low. Scenario and sensitivity analyses revealed that human factors, i.e., the performance of the water board and response and support from the community, positively influence the sustainability of the water supply program. Additionally, the water board plays a key role in accelerating the pipe network growth. Finally, this paper argues that visualising and simulating the causal relationship and dynamic behaviour of the rural water supply program are critical for water stakeholders to better design and implement the water supply program. View Full-Text
Keywords: rural drinking water supply; system dynamics; Indonesia; PAMSIMAS; sustainability rural drinking water supply; system dynamics; Indonesia; PAMSIMAS; sustainability
Show Figures

Graphical abstract

MDPI and ACS Style

Daniel, D.; Prawira, J.; Al Djono, T.P.; Subandriyo, S.; Rezagama, A.; Purwanto, A. A System Dynamics Model of the Community-Based Rural Drinking Water Supply Program (PAMSIMAS) in Indonesia. Water 2021, 13, 507. https://doi.org/10.3390/w13040507

AMA Style

Daniel D, Prawira J, Al Djono TP, Subandriyo S, Rezagama A, Purwanto A. A System Dynamics Model of the Community-Based Rural Drinking Water Supply Program (PAMSIMAS) in Indonesia. Water. 2021; 13(4):507. https://doi.org/10.3390/w13040507

Chicago/Turabian Style

Daniel, D.; Prawira, Julivius; Al Djono, Trimo P.; Subandriyo, S.; Rezagama, Arya; Purwanto, Aries. 2021. "A System Dynamics Model of the Community-Based Rural Drinking Water Supply Program (PAMSIMAS) in Indonesia" Water 13, no. 4: 507. https://doi.org/10.3390/w13040507

Find Other Styles
Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Article Access Map by Country/Region

1
Search more from Scilit
 
Search
Back to TopTop