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Open AccessArticle

Seasonal Variation of Rainy and Dry Season Per Capita Water Consumption in Freetown City Sierra Leone

Centre for Water Systems, College of Engineering, Mathematics and Physical Sciences, Harrison Building, North Park Road, University of Exeter, Exeter EX4 4QF, UK
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Academic Editor: Chad Staddon
Water 2021, 13(4), 499; https://doi.org/10.3390/w13040499
Received: 4 November 2020 / Revised: 1 February 2021 / Accepted: 6 February 2021 / Published: 15 February 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Water Demand Management)
Ensuring a sustainable urban water supply for developing/low-income countries requires an understanding of the factors affecting water consumption and technical evidence of individual consumption which can be used to design an improved water demand projection. This paper compared dry and rainy season water sources available for consumption and the end-use volume by each person in the different income groups. The study used a questionnaire survey to gather household data for a total of 398 households, which was analysed to develop the relationship between per capita water consumption characteristics: Socio-economic status, demographics, water use behaviour around indoor and outdoor water use activities. In the per capita water consumption patterns of Freetown, a seasonal variation was found: In the rainy season, per capita water consumption was found to be about 7% higher than the consumption for the full sample, whilst in the dry season, per capita water consumption was almost 14% lower than the full survey. The statistical analysis of the data shows that the average per capita water consumption for both households increases with income for informal slum-, low-, middle- and high-income households without piped connection (73, 78, 94 and 112 L/capita/day) and with connection (91, 97, 113 and 133 L/capita/day), respectively. The collected data have been used to develop 20 statistical models using the multiple linear stepwise regression method for selecting the best predictor variable from the data set. It can be seen from the values that the strongest significant relationships of per capita consumption are with the number of occupants (R = −0.728) in the household and time spent to fetch water for use (R = −0.711). Furthermore, the results reveal that the highest fraction of end use is showering (18%), then bathing (16%), followed by toilet use (14%). This is not in agreement with many developing countries where toilet use represents the largest component of indoor end use. View Full-Text
Keywords: per capita water consumption; seasonal variation; water end-uses; Freetown; stepwise regression per capita water consumption; seasonal variation; water end-uses; Freetown; stepwise regression
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MDPI and ACS Style

Ibrahim A, S.; Memon, F.A.; Butler, D. Seasonal Variation of Rainy and Dry Season Per Capita Water Consumption in Freetown City Sierra Leone. Water 2021, 13, 499. https://doi.org/10.3390/w13040499

AMA Style

Ibrahim A S, Memon FA, Butler D. Seasonal Variation of Rainy and Dry Season Per Capita Water Consumption in Freetown City Sierra Leone. Water. 2021; 13(4):499. https://doi.org/10.3390/w13040499

Chicago/Turabian Style

Ibrahim A, Salmatta; Memon, Fayyaz A.; Butler, David. 2021. "Seasonal Variation of Rainy and Dry Season Per Capita Water Consumption in Freetown City Sierra Leone" Water 13, no. 4: 499. https://doi.org/10.3390/w13040499

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