In the long-distance and high-drop gravitational water supply systems, the water level difference between the upstream and downstream is large. Thus, it is necessary to ensure energy dissipation and pressure head reduction to reduce the pipeline pressure head. The energy dissipation box is a new type of energy dissipation and pressure head reduction device, which is widely used in the gravitational flow transition systems. At present, there is still a dearth of systematic knowledge about the performance of energy dissipation boxes. In this paper, a relationship between the location of the energy dissipation box and the pressure head amplitude is established, a theoretical optimal location equation of the energy dissipation box is derived, and numerical simulations using an engineering example are carried out for verification. The protective effects of an energy dissipation box placed at the theoretical optimal location and an upstream location are compared. The results indicate that for the same valve action time, the optimal position allows effectively reducing the total volume of energy dissipation box. The oscillation amplitudes of the water level in the box and the pressure head behind the box are markedly reduced. Under the condition that the water level oscillation of the energy dissipation box is almost the same, the optimal location offers better pressure head reduction protection performance than the upstream location.
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