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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle

Effects of Malachite Green on the Microbiomes of Milkfish Culture Ponds

Department of Microbiology, Soochow University, Taipei City 11102, Taiwan
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Water 2021, 13(4), 411; https://doi.org/10.3390/w13040411
Received: 23 December 2020 / Revised: 25 January 2021 / Accepted: 29 January 2021 / Published: 4 February 2021
(This article belongs to the Section Water, Agriculture and Aquaculture)
Intensive fish farming through aquaculture is vulnerable to infectious diseases that can increase fish mortality and damage the productivity of aquaculture farms. To prevent infectious diseases, malachite green (MG) has been applied as a veterinary drug for various microbial infections in aquaculture settings worldwide. However, little is known regarding the consequences of MG and MG-degrading bacteria (MGDB) on microbial communities in milkfish culture ponds (MCPs). In this study, small MCPs were used as a model system to determine the effects of MG on the microbial communities in MCPs. The addition of MG led to cyanobacterial blooms in the small MCP. The addition of MGDB could not completely reverse the effects of MG on microbial communities. Cyanobacterial blooms were not prevented. Microbial communities analyzed by next generation sequencing revealed that cyanobacterial blooms may be due to increase of nitrogen cycle (including nitrogen fixation, nitrate reduction and anammox) associated microbial communities, which raised the levels of ammonium in the water of the small MCP. The communities of anoxygenic phototrophic bacteria (beneficial for aquaculture and aquatic ecosystems) decreased after the addition of MG. The results of this investigation provide valuable insights into the effects of MG in aquaculture and the difficulties of bioremediation for aquatic environments polluted by MG. View Full-Text
Keywords: malachite green; microbiome; cyanobacterial blooms; nitrogen cycle malachite green; microbiome; cyanobacterial blooms; nitrogen cycle
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MDPI and ACS Style

Yang, C.-W.; Chang, Y.-T.; Hsieh, C.-Y.; Chang, B.-V. Effects of Malachite Green on the Microbiomes of Milkfish Culture Ponds. Water 2021, 13, 411. https://doi.org/10.3390/w13040411

AMA Style

Yang C-W, Chang Y-T, Hsieh C-Y, Chang B-V. Effects of Malachite Green on the Microbiomes of Milkfish Culture Ponds. Water. 2021; 13(4):411. https://doi.org/10.3390/w13040411

Chicago/Turabian Style

Yang, Chu-Wen; Chang, Yi-Tang; Hsieh, Chi-Yen; Chang, Bea-Ven. 2021. "Effects of Malachite Green on the Microbiomes of Milkfish Culture Ponds" Water 13, no. 4: 411. https://doi.org/10.3390/w13040411

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