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Article

Presence and Reduction of Anthropogenic Substances with UV Light and Oxidizing Disinfectants in Wastewater—A Case Study at Kuopio, Finland

1
Water Microbiology Laboratory, Department of Health Security, Finnish Institute for Health and Welfare, P.O. Box 95, FI-70701 Kuopio, Finland
2
School of Engineering and Technology, Savonia University of Applied Sciences, P.O. Box 6 (Microkatu 1), FI-70201 Kuopio, Finland
3
Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Department of Food Hygiene and Environmental Health, University of Helsinki, P.O. Box 66, FI-00014 Helsinki, Finland
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Amin Mojiri
Water 2021, 13(3), 360; https://doi.org/10.3390/w13030360
Received: 18 December 2020 / Revised: 27 January 2021 / Accepted: 27 January 2021 / Published: 30 January 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Wastewater Treatment: Current and Future Techniques)
Anthropogenic substances are a major concern due to their potential harmful effects towards aquatic ecosystems. Because wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) are not designed to remove these substances from wastewater, a part of the anthropogenic substances enter nature via WWTP discharges. During the spring 2019, the occurrence of anthropogenic substances in the municipal wastewater effluent in Kuopio, Finland, was analysed. Furthermore, the capacity of selected disinfection methods to reduce these substances from wastewater was tested. The disinfection methods were ozonation (760 mL min−1) with an OxTube hermetic dissolution method (1), the combined usage of peracetic acid (PAA) (<5 mg L−1) and ultraviolet (UV) disinfection (12 mJ/cm2) (2), and the combined usage of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) (<10 mg L−1) and UV disinfection (12 mJ/cm2) (3). The substances found at the concentrations over 1 µg L−1 in effluent (N = 3) were cetirizine (5.2 ± 1.3 µg L−1), benzotriazole (BZT) (2.1 ± 0.98 µg L−1), hydrochlorothiazide (1.7 ± 0.2 µg L−1), furosemide (1.6 ± 0.2 µg L−1), lamotrigine (1.5 ± 0.06 µg L−1), diclofenac (DCF) (1.4 ± 0.2 µg L−1), venlafaxine (1.0 ± 0.13 µg L−1) and losartan (0.9 ± 0.2 µg L−1). The reduction (%) with different methods (1, 2, 3) were: cetirizine (99.9, 5.0, NR = no removal), benzotriazole (67.9, NR, NR), hydrochlorothiazide (91.1, 5.9, NR), furosemide (99.7, 5.9, NR), lamotrigine (46.4, NR, 6.7), diclofenac (99.7, 7.1, 16.7), venlafaxine (91.3, NR, 1.1), losartan (99.6, 13.8, NR). Further research concerning the tested disinfection methods is needed in order to fully elucidate their potential for removing anthropogenic substances from purified wastewater. View Full-Text
Keywords: anthropogenic substances; disinfection; wastewater anthropogenic substances; disinfection; wastewater
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MDPI and ACS Style

Ikonen, J.; Nuutinen, I.; Niittynen, M.; Hokajärvi, A.-M.; Pitkänen, T.; Antikainen, E.; Miettinen, I.T. Presence and Reduction of Anthropogenic Substances with UV Light and Oxidizing Disinfectants in Wastewater—A Case Study at Kuopio, Finland. Water 2021, 13, 360. https://doi.org/10.3390/w13030360

AMA Style

Ikonen J, Nuutinen I, Niittynen M, Hokajärvi A-M, Pitkänen T, Antikainen E, Miettinen IT. Presence and Reduction of Anthropogenic Substances with UV Light and Oxidizing Disinfectants in Wastewater—A Case Study at Kuopio, Finland. Water. 2021; 13(3):360. https://doi.org/10.3390/w13030360

Chicago/Turabian Style

Ikonen, Jenni, Ilpo Nuutinen, Marjo Niittynen, Anna-Maria Hokajärvi, Tarja Pitkänen, Eero Antikainen, and Ilkka T. Miettinen. 2021. "Presence and Reduction of Anthropogenic Substances with UV Light and Oxidizing Disinfectants in Wastewater—A Case Study at Kuopio, Finland" Water 13, no. 3: 360. https://doi.org/10.3390/w13030360

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