Next Article in Journal
Assessment of Flood Forecast Products for a Coupled Tributary-Coastal Model
Previous Article in Journal
Water Demand Prediction Using Machine Learning Methods: A Case Study of the Beijing–Tianjin–Hebei Region in China
Article

Impact of Controlled Drainage and Subirrigation on Water Quality in the Red River Valley

1
Department of Agricultural and Biosystems Engineering, North Dakota State University, Fargo, ND 58102, USA
2
Department of Soil Science, North Dakota State University, Fargo, ND 58102, USA
3
Department of Statistics, North Dakota State University, Fargo, ND 58102, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Manoj K. Jha
Water 2021, 13(3), 308; https://doi.org/10.3390/w13030308
Received: 26 December 2020 / Revised: 19 January 2021 / Accepted: 22 January 2021 / Published: 27 January 2021
(This article belongs to the Section Water, Agriculture and Aquaculture)
The potential impact of controlled drainage (CD), which limits drainage outflow, and subirrigation (SI), which provides supplemental water through drain tile, on surface water quality are not well known in the Red River Valley (RRV). In this study, water samples were collected and analyzed for chemical concentrations from a tile-drained field that also has controlled drainage and subirrigation modes in the RRV of southeastern North Dakota from 2012–2018. A decreasing trend in overall nutrient load loss was observed because of reduced drainage outflow, though some chemical concentrations were found to be above the recommended surface water quality standards in this region. For example, sulfate was recommended to be below 750 mg/L but was reported at a mean value of 1971 mg/L during spring free drainage. The chemical composition of the subirrigation water was shown to have an impact on drainage water and the soil, specifically on salinity-related parameters, and the impact varied between years. This variation largely depended on the amount of subirrigation applied, soil moisture, and soil properties. Overall, the results of this study show the benefits of controlled drainage on nutrient loss reduction from agricultural fields. View Full-Text
Keywords: water quality; subirrigation; controlled drainage; nutrient; salinity water quality; subirrigation; controlled drainage; nutrient; salinity
Show Figures

Figure 1

MDPI and ACS Style

Almen, K.; Jia, X.; DeSutter, T.; Scherer, T.; Lin, M. Impact of Controlled Drainage and Subirrigation on Water Quality in the Red River Valley. Water 2021, 13, 308. https://doi.org/10.3390/w13030308

AMA Style

Almen K, Jia X, DeSutter T, Scherer T, Lin M. Impact of Controlled Drainage and Subirrigation on Water Quality in the Red River Valley. Water. 2021; 13(3):308. https://doi.org/10.3390/w13030308

Chicago/Turabian Style

Almen, Kristen, Xinhua Jia, Thomas DeSutter, Thomas Scherer, and Minglian Lin. 2021. "Impact of Controlled Drainage and Subirrigation on Water Quality in the Red River Valley" Water 13, no. 3: 308. https://doi.org/10.3390/w13030308

Find Other Styles
Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Article Access Map by Country/Region

1
Back to TopTop