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Hydrochemistry of the Lhasa River, Tibetan Plateau: Spatiotemporal Variations of Major Ions Compositions and Controlling Factors Using Multivariate Statistical Approaches

1
School of Environment, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin 150090, China
2
School of Environmental Science and Engineering, Southern University of Science and Technology, Shenzhen 518055, China
3
Shenzhen Municipal Engineering Lab of Environmental IoT Technologies, School of Environmental Science and Engineering, Southern University of Science and Technology, Shenzhen 518055, China
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Elias Dimitriou
Water 2021, 13(24), 3660; https://doi.org/10.3390/w13243660
Received: 22 October 2021 / Revised: 9 December 2021 / Accepted: 14 December 2021 / Published: 20 December 2021
(This article belongs to the Section Water Quality and Contamination)
Spatiotemporal variations of the hydrochemical major ions compositions and their controlling factors are essential features of a river basin. However, similar studies in the southern Tibetan Plateau are relatively limited. This study focuses on the chemical compositions of the dissolved loads in the Lhasa River (LR) in the southern Tibetan Plateau. Two sampling campaigns were conducted during the rainy and dry seasons across the LR basin to systematically investigate the spatiotemporal variations of water chemistry and sources of the dissolved loads. The results show that the river water possesses slight alkalinity with an average pH of 8.05 ± 0.04. Total dissolved solids (TDS) and oxidation-reduction potential (ORP) range widely from 39.8 mg/L to 582.6 mg/L with an average value of 165.6 ± 7.7 mg/L and from −9.4 mV to 295 mV with a mean value of 153.7 ± 6.9 mV, respectively. The major cations follow the decreasing order of Ca2+, Mg2+, Na+, and K+ while HCO3, SO42−, Cl, and NO3 for anions. Ca2+ and Mg2+ account for 87.8% of the total cations, while HCO3 and SO42− accounts for 93.9% of the total anions. All the major ions show higher concentrations in the dry season. NO3, HCO3, and Mg2+ show significant spatial variations due to the influence of basin lithology and anthropogenic activity. Multi-variables statistical analysis reveals that the mechanisms controlling the LR hydrochemistry are mainly carbonate weathering followed by silicate weathering. Geothermal springs and anthropogenic activities also play crucial roles in altering river water ions composition in the middle stream and downstream. The relatively high NO3 value (3 ± 0.2 mg/L) suggests water quality will be under the threat of pollution with the increase of anthropogenic activities. View Full-Text
Keywords: major ions; spatiotemporal variations; controlling factors; hydrochemistry; Lhasa River major ions; spatiotemporal variations; controlling factors; hydrochemistry; Lhasa River
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MDPI and ACS Style

Zhu, M.; Kuang, X.; Feng, Y.; Hao, Y.; He, Q.; Zhou, H.; Chen, J.; Zou, Y.; Zheng, C. Hydrochemistry of the Lhasa River, Tibetan Plateau: Spatiotemporal Variations of Major Ions Compositions and Controlling Factors Using Multivariate Statistical Approaches. Water 2021, 13, 3660. https://doi.org/10.3390/w13243660

AMA Style

Zhu M, Kuang X, Feng Y, Hao Y, He Q, Zhou H, Chen J, Zou Y, Zheng C. Hydrochemistry of the Lhasa River, Tibetan Plateau: Spatiotemporal Variations of Major Ions Compositions and Controlling Factors Using Multivariate Statistical Approaches. Water. 2021; 13(24):3660. https://doi.org/10.3390/w13243660

Chicago/Turabian Style

Zhu, Meizhuang, Xingxing Kuang, Yuqing Feng, Yinlei Hao, Qiule He, Hui Zhou, Jianxin Chen, Yiguang Zou, and Chunmiao Zheng. 2021. "Hydrochemistry of the Lhasa River, Tibetan Plateau: Spatiotemporal Variations of Major Ions Compositions and Controlling Factors Using Multivariate Statistical Approaches" Water 13, no. 24: 3660. https://doi.org/10.3390/w13243660

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