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Article

Importance of Infiltration Rates for Fate and Transport of Benzene in High-Tiered Risk-Based Assessment Considering Korean Site-Specific Factors at Contaminated Sites

1
Department of Hydro Science and Engineering Research, Korea Institute of Civil Engineering and Building Technology, Goyang 10223, Korea
2
Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Hanbat National University, Daejeon 34158, Korea
3
Groundwater Research Center, Geologic Environment Division, Korea Institute of Geoscience and Mineral Resources (KIGAM), Daejeon 34132, Korea
4
Department of Mineral and Groundwater Resources, Korea University of Science and Technology, Daejeon 34113, Korea
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Fernando António Leal Pacheco
Water 2021, 13(24), 3646; https://doi.org/10.3390/w13243646
Received: 8 October 2021 / Revised: 13 December 2021 / Accepted: 15 December 2021 / Published: 18 December 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Remediation of NAPL-Contaminated Groundwater Aquifers)
Widely used conservative approaches for risk-based assessments of the subsurface transport processes have been calculated using simple analytical equations or general default values. Higher-tier risk assessment of contaminated sites requires the numerical models or additional site-specific values for input parameters. Previous studies have focused on the development of sophisticated models fit into risk-based frameworks. Our study mainly aims to explore the applicability of site-specific parameters and to modify the risk-based fate and transport model according to the types of the site-specific parameters. To apply the modified fate and transport equation and the site-specific default infiltration range, this study assessed the source depletion, leachate concentrations, and exposure concentration of benzene, which is a representative organic contaminant. The numerical models consist of two continuous processes, the fate and transport of contaminants from (1) the soil to the groundwater table in the vadose zone and subsequently (2) from the groundwater table to exposure wells in the saturated zone. Spatially varied Korean domestic recharge data were successfully incorporated into site-specific infiltration parameters in the models. The numerical simulation results were expressed as transient time series of concentrations over time. Results presented the narrow range of predicted concentrations at the groundwater table when site-specific infiltration was applied, and the dilution–attenuation factors for the unsaturated zone (DAFunsat) were derived based on the prediction. When a contaminant travels to the longest path length of 10 m with a source depth of 1 m in the vadoze zone, the simulated DAFunsat ranged from 3 to 4. The highest DAFunsat simulation results are close to 1 when contaminants travel to a source depth of 5 m and the shortest path length of 1 m. In the saturated aquifer below the contaminated sites, the variation in exposure concentration with time at monitoring wells is detected differently depending on the depth of the saturated zone. View Full-Text
Keywords: high-tiered risk assessment; fate and transport; source depletion; site-specific parameter; dilution-attenuation factor high-tiered risk assessment; fate and transport; source depletion; site-specific parameter; dilution-attenuation factor
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MDPI and ACS Style

Chang, S.W.; Chung, I.-M.; Kim, I.H.; Joo, J.C.; Moon, H.S. Importance of Infiltration Rates for Fate and Transport of Benzene in High-Tiered Risk-Based Assessment Considering Korean Site-Specific Factors at Contaminated Sites. Water 2021, 13, 3646. https://doi.org/10.3390/w13243646

AMA Style

Chang SW, Chung I-M, Kim IH, Joo JC, Moon HS. Importance of Infiltration Rates for Fate and Transport of Benzene in High-Tiered Risk-Based Assessment Considering Korean Site-Specific Factors at Contaminated Sites. Water. 2021; 13(24):3646. https://doi.org/10.3390/w13243646

Chicago/Turabian Style

Chang, Sun W., Il-Moon Chung, Il H. Kim, Jin C. Joo, and Hee S. Moon. 2021. "Importance of Infiltration Rates for Fate and Transport of Benzene in High-Tiered Risk-Based Assessment Considering Korean Site-Specific Factors at Contaminated Sites" Water 13, no. 24: 3646. https://doi.org/10.3390/w13243646

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