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Article

Application of a Developed Numerical Model for Surfactant Flushing Combined with Intermittent Air Injection at Field Scale

1
SG Institute of Environment Science & Technology, Gunsan City 54012, Korea
2
Korea Institute of Geoscience and Mineral Resources, Daejeon 34132, Korea
3
Graduate Institute of Applied Geology, National Central University, Taoyuan City 320, Taiwan
4
Department of Geology, Kyungpook National University, 80 Daehak-ro, Buk-gu, Daegu 41566, Korea
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Pankaj Kumar
Water 2022, 14(3), 316; https://doi.org/10.3390/w14030316
Received: 20 December 2021 / Revised: 17 January 2022 / Accepted: 19 January 2022 / Published: 21 January 2022
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Remediation of NAPL-Contaminated Groundwater Aquifers)
Surfactant flushing with intermittent air injection, referred to as enhanced flushing, has been proposed at a site in Korea contaminated by military activity to overcome the difficulty of treatment caused by a layered geological structure. In this study, we developed a simple numerical model for exploring the effects of various physical and chemical processes associated with enhanced flushing on pollutant removal efficiency and applied it in a field-scale test. This simple numerical model considers only enhanced hydraulic conductivity rather than all of the interacting parameters associated with the complex chemical and physical processes related to air and surfactant behavior during enhanced flushing treatment. In the numerical experiment, the removal efficiency of residual non-aqueous phase liquid (NAPL) was approximately 12% greater with enhanced, rather than conventional, flushing because the hydraulic conductivity of the low-permeability layer was enhanced 5-fold, thus accelerating surfactant transport in the low-permeability layer and facilitating enhanced dissolution of residual NAPL. To test whether the enhanced flushing method is superior to conventional flushing, as observed in the field-scale test, successive soil flushing operations were simulated using the newly developed model, and the results were compared to field data. Overall, the simulation results aligned well with the field data. View Full-Text
Keywords: enhanced flushing; residual NAPL; simple numerical modeling; enhancement of hydraulic conductivity; air injection enhanced flushing; residual NAPL; simple numerical modeling; enhancement of hydraulic conductivity; air injection
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MDPI and ACS Style

Lee, H.; Suk, H.; Chen, J.-S.; Park, E. Application of a Developed Numerical Model for Surfactant Flushing Combined with Intermittent Air Injection at Field Scale. Water 2022, 14, 316. https://doi.org/10.3390/w14030316

AMA Style

Lee H, Suk H, Chen J-S, Park E. Application of a Developed Numerical Model for Surfactant Flushing Combined with Intermittent Air Injection at Field Scale. Water. 2022; 14(3):316. https://doi.org/10.3390/w14030316

Chicago/Turabian Style

Lee, Hwan, Heejun Suk, Jui-Sheng Chen, and Eungyu Park. 2022. "Application of a Developed Numerical Model for Surfactant Flushing Combined with Intermittent Air Injection at Field Scale" Water 14, no. 3: 316. https://doi.org/10.3390/w14030316

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