With the increasingly serious problems of water security and water shortage in the Yellow River Basin, the establishment of a fair and efficient water rights distribution system is an important way to improve water resource utilization efficiency and achieve high-quality development. In this paper, a double-level water rights allocation model of national canals–farmer households in irrigation districts is established. The Gini coefficient method is used to construct the water rights allocation model among farmer households based on the principle of fairness. Finally, the Wulanbuhe Irrigation Area in the Hetao Irrigation District is taken as an example. Results show that the allocated water rights of the national canals in the irrigation district are less than the current; for example, water rights of the Grazing team (4) canal are reduced by 73,000 m3
than before, in which water rights of farmer households 1, 2, 3, and 4 obtain compensation and 5, 6, 7, and 8 are cut by the water rights allocation model and the Gini coefficient is reduced from 0.1968 to 0.1289. The research has fully tapped the water-saving potential of irrigation districts, improved the fairness of initial water rights distribution, and can provide a scientific basis for the development of water rights allocation of irrigation water users in irrigation districts of the Yellow River Basin.
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