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Article

Hydrogeochemistry and Precursory Anomalies in Thermal Springs of Fujian (Southeastern China) Associated with Earthquakes in the Taiwan Strait

1
State Key Laboratory of Earthquake Dynamics, Institute of Geology, China Earthquake Administration, Beijing 100029, China
2
China Earthquake Networks Center, Beijing 100045, China
3
United Laboratory of High-Pressure Physics and Earthquake Science, Key Laboratory of Earthquake Prediction, Institute of Earthquake Forecasting, CEA, Beijing 100036, China
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: José Virgílio Cruz
Water 2021, 13(24), 3523; https://doi.org/10.3390/w13243523
Received: 5 November 2021 / Revised: 30 November 2021 / Accepted: 7 December 2021 / Published: 9 December 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Earthquakes and Groundwater)
Analyzing the hydrochemical composition in thermal springs is an advantageous method for studying the coupling mechanism of the deep and shallow fluids in active fault zones. Here we conducted sampling in 30 thermal springs near fault zones in Fujian Province, and the major elements, trace elements, silica, stable isotopes (δD and δ18O) and strontium isotopes were tested in the laboratory. The results show that (1) the thermal springs in the study area can be divided into six types according to the content of the major elements: HCO3-Na, HCO3·SO4-Na, Cl·HCO3-Na, Cl-Na, Cl-Na·Ca and HCO3·SO4-Ca; (2) hydrogen and oxygen isotopes indicate that precipitation is the main source of recharge for thermal springs in the study area, and the recharge height is between 258 m and 1859 m; (3) the content of SiO2 in the thermal spring varies from 18.1 mg/L to 59.3 mg/L. The geothermal reservoir temperature calculated is 90~226 °C, and the circulation depth is 2.9~5.4 km, except for the W10 thermal spring, whose circulation depth is 8.4 km; and (4) the 87Sr/86Sr of the thermal springs in southwestern Fujian and eastern Fujian has obviously different characteristics, indicating the influence of different rock formations on the groundwater cycle process. Additionally, a continuous measurement of the main anions and cations was performed in five thermal springs every three days since January 2020. There were obvious abnormal changes in the hydrochemical compositions, chlorine in four of the five springs, sodium at three springs, and four ions at one spring, which all showed abnormal high-value changes by 15% to 80%, and which occurred 85~168 days prior to the M6.1 earthquake in Hualien, Taiwan. An inspiration could be provided for obtaining effective earthquake precursor anomalies by monitoring the change in ion concentration in thermal springs. View Full-Text
Keywords: thermal spring; hydrochemical composition; geothermal reservoir temperature; seismic activity; Taiwan strait thermal spring; hydrochemical composition; geothermal reservoir temperature; seismic activity; Taiwan strait
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MDPI and ACS Style

Wang, B.; Zhou, X.; Zhou, Y.; Yan, Y.; Li, Y.; Ouyang, S.; Liu, F.; Zhong, J. Hydrogeochemistry and Precursory Anomalies in Thermal Springs of Fujian (Southeastern China) Associated with Earthquakes in the Taiwan Strait. Water 2021, 13, 3523. https://doi.org/10.3390/w13243523

AMA Style

Wang B, Zhou X, Zhou Y, Yan Y, Li Y, Ouyang S, Liu F, Zhong J. Hydrogeochemistry and Precursory Anomalies in Thermal Springs of Fujian (Southeastern China) Associated with Earthquakes in the Taiwan Strait. Water. 2021; 13(24):3523. https://doi.org/10.3390/w13243523

Chicago/Turabian Style

Wang, Bo, Xiaocheng Zhou, Yongsheng Zhou, Yucong Yan, Ying Li, Shupei Ouyang, Fengli Liu, and Jun Zhong. 2021. "Hydrogeochemistry and Precursory Anomalies in Thermal Springs of Fujian (Southeastern China) Associated with Earthquakes in the Taiwan Strait" Water 13, no. 24: 3523. https://doi.org/10.3390/w13243523

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