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Review

Treatment of Textile Wastewater Using Advanced Oxidation Processes—A Critical Review

1
Moore Center for Science, Conservation International, Arlington, VA 22202, USA
2
Sateri, Jiujiang 332017, China
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: Minghao Sui and Tian Li
Water 2021, 13(24), 3515; https://doi.org/10.3390/w13243515
Received: 6 November 2021 / Revised: 5 December 2021 / Accepted: 6 December 2021 / Published: 9 December 2021
Textile manufacturing is a multi-stage operation process that produces significant amounts of highly toxic wastewater. Given the size of the global textile market and its environmental impact, the development of effective, economical, and easy-to handle alternative treatment technologies for textile wastewater is of significant interest. Based on the analysis of peer-reviewed publications over the last two decades, this paper provides a comprehensive review of advanced oxidation processes (AOPs) on textile wastewater treatment, including their performances, mechanisms, advantages, disadvantages, influencing factors, and electrical energy per order (EEO) requirements. Fenton-based AOPs show the lowest median EEO value of 0.98 kWh m−3 order−1, followed by photochemical (3.20 kWh m−3 order−1), ozonation (3.34 kWh m−3 order−1), electrochemical (29.5 kWh m−3 order−1), photocatalysis (91 kWh m−3 order−1), and ultrasound (971.45 kWh m−3 order−1). The Fenton process can treat textile effluent at the lowest possible cost due to the minimal energy input and low reagent cost, while Ultrasound-based AOPs show the lowest electrical efficiency due to the high energy consumption. Further, to explore the applicability of these methods, available results from a full-scale implementation of the enhanced Fenton technology at a textile mill wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) are discussed. The WWTP operates at an estimated cost of CNY ¥1.62 m−3 (USD $0.23 m−3) with effluent meeting the China Grade I-A pollutant discharge standard for municipal WWTPs, indicating that the enhanced Fenton technology is efficient and cost-effective in industrial treatment for textile effluent. View Full-Text
Keywords: textile wastewater; advanced oxidation process; electrical energy per order; Fenton process textile wastewater; advanced oxidation process; electrical energy per order; Fenton process
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MDPI and ACS Style

Zhang, Y.; Shaad, K.; Vollmer, D.; Ma, C. Treatment of Textile Wastewater Using Advanced Oxidation Processes—A Critical Review. Water 2021, 13, 3515. https://doi.org/10.3390/w13243515

AMA Style

Zhang Y, Shaad K, Vollmer D, Ma C. Treatment of Textile Wastewater Using Advanced Oxidation Processes—A Critical Review. Water. 2021; 13(24):3515. https://doi.org/10.3390/w13243515

Chicago/Turabian Style

Zhang, Yiqing, Kashif Shaad, Derek Vollmer, and Chi Ma. 2021. "Treatment of Textile Wastewater Using Advanced Oxidation Processes—A Critical Review" Water 13, no. 24: 3515. https://doi.org/10.3390/w13243515

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